Universal Precautions


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U·ni·ver·sal Pre·cau·tions

(yū'ni-ver'săl prē-kaw'shŭnz),
(in full, Universal Blood and Body Fluid Precautions). A set of procedural directives and guidelines published in August 1987 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (as Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-Care Settings) to prevent parenteral, mucous membrane, and nonintact skin exposures of health care workers to bloodborne pathogens. In December 1991, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) promulgated its Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, incorporating universal precautions and imposing detailed requirements on employers of health care workers, including engineering controls, provision of protective barrier devices, standardized labeling of biohazards, mandatory training of employees in Universal Precautions, management of accidental parenteral exposure incidents, and availability to employees of immunization against hepatitis B.

The principle underlying universal precautions is that the blood and certain other body fluids of all recipients of health care are to be considered potentially infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and other bloodborne pathogens. Universal precautions apply to blood, unfixed tissues (except intact skin), cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, amniotic fluid, semen, and vaginal secretions, but not to feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, or vomitus unless these materials contain visible blood. Specific precautions are prescribed with respect to mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, surgery, invasive diagnostic procedures, obstetrics, renal dialysis, dentistry, clinical laboratories, morgues, and morticians' services. Barrier devices such as gloves, gowns, waterproof aprons, masks, and protective eyewear are required in certain settings, to prevent exposure to blood and other biologically hazardous materials. The OSHA standard requires glove wear for phlebotomy and intraoral examinations and manipulations. Standards are also imposed for laundry, cleaning of surfaces, and disposal of contaminated wastes. Special precautions are advised for handling needles, scalpels, and other sharp instruments or devices after use. Immunization with HBV vaccine is recommended as an important adjunct to universal precautions for health care workers exposed to blood. Universal precautions are intended to supplement, not replace, routine procedures for infection control such as handwashing and using gloves to prevent gross contamination of the hands. Implementation of universal precautions does not eliminate the need for other category- or disease-specific isolation precautions, such as enteric precautions for infectious diarrhea and respiratory isolation for pulmonary tuberculosis.

A method of infection control—recommended by the CDC—in which all human blood, certain body fluids, as well as fresh tissues and cells of human origin are handled as if they are known to be infected with HIV, HBV, and/or other blood-borne pathogens

universal precautions

Infectious disease A method of infection control–recommendations issued by CDC–in which all human blood, certain body fluids, as well as fresh tissues and cells of human origin, are treated as if known to be infected with HIV, HBV, and/or other blood-borne pathogens. See Precautions, Reverse precautions. Cf Body substance isolation.

U·ni·ver·sal Pre·cau·tions

(yū'ni-vĕr'săl prĕ-kaw'shŭnz)
(in full, Universal Blood and Body Fluid Precautions). A set of procedural directives and guidelines published in August 1987 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (as Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-Care Settings) to prevent parenteral, mucous membrane, and nonintact skin exposures of health care workers to bloodborne pathogens. In December 1991, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) promulgated its Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, incorporating universal precautions and imposing detailed requirements on employers of health care workers, including engineering controls, provision of protective barrier devices, standardized labeling of biohazards, mandatory training of employees in the Universal Precautions, management of accidental parenteral exposure incidents, and availability to employees of immunization against hepatitis B virus.

u·ni·ver·sal pre·cau·tions

(yū'ni-vĕr'săl prē-kaw'shŭnz)
Generally, acting under the assumption that all bodily fluids may be contaminated. See: Universal Precautions.

U·ni·ver·sal Pre·cau·tions

(yūni-vĕrsăl prĕ-kawshŭnz)
(in full, Universal Blood and Body Fluid Precautions). A set of procedural directives and guidelines published in August 1987 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (as Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-Care Settings) to prevent parenteral, mucous membrane, and nonintact skin exposures of health care workers to bloodborne pathogens.
References in periodicals archive ?
Controversial issues such as these require critical legal and ethical evaluation, especially in developing countries, where the consumables and equipment that are intended to promote the practice of universal precautions are seldom guaranteed.
Similarly, a study from Pakistan showed that only 29.7% of NSIs that occurred among medical students were reported to the hospital authorities, lack of awareness being the main reason.10 Another imperative component essential for reduction of HAIs is adherence to Universal Precautions (UP) which involve the use of personal protective equipment with the approach of treating all human blood and certain human body fluids as if they were known to be infectious.11
Universal Precautions for Preventing Transmission of Bloodborne Infections Atlanta, Georgia, USA: Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, 2007.
The most important factor that affects needle stick and sharp injury was application of universal precautions during procedure.
Majority of our participants reported that they were being educated regarding universal precautions while 17.5% admitted of being unknown about it.
Weigh potential risks against benefits and employ universal precautions to minimize abuse and addiction, and be cautious in coprescribing other centrallyacting agents (J Clin Oncol.
Employers and workers in healthcare settings and laboratories should follow good infection control and biosafety practices (including universal precautions) as appropriate, to prevent or minimize the risk of transmission of infectious agents (e.g., Zika virus).
During that time, in TV and movies, blood was used to express a fear of contagion; think of vials of blood on the nightly news, and Joseph Mazzello in the 1995 movie The Cure screaming "My blood is poison!" Universal precautions were introduced in medical and law enforcement situations to reduce contact with blood regardless of the actual risk of transmission, and the blood supply was more intensely screened; gay men and others were barred from donating.
(15,16) The association instead supports administering universal precautions to reduce exercise induced injury and heat-related injury such as those implemented by the US Army.
NSIs can also be prevented by applying "Universal Precautions" as a safety measure.7
(7,8) This study is an attempt to assess the prevalence of HIV seropositivity in a specific surgical population as a step towards estimating the risk of professionally acquired infection, and to assess the extent to which universal precautions are actually applied in our hospital in Gulbarga.
Since only 12 percent of Americans have proficient health literacy, (9) many leading health care organizations, including the Institute of Medicine (IOM), the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) recommend that health care professionals use health literacy universal precautions, such as plain language, teach-back method and the use of easy-to-read materials with all patients.

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