SD: standard deviation; BW: body weight; WC: waist circumference; BMI: body mass index; MoCA-TR: Turkish version of the Montreal cognitive assessment scale; UPDRS: the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale
; HY: Hoehn and Yahr; LEDD: L-dopa equivalent daily dose.
This fear of falling is further heightened in patients who test poorly on portions (arising from a chair, posture, gait, postural stability) of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale
(UPDRS) and on particular standing balance tests.
Clinical disease severity on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale
(UPDRS-I, UPDRS-II, and UPDRS-III), modified HY-stage scale, and SE-ADL scale could only be evaluated in the patient group.
Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale
. In: Fahn S Marsden CD Calne D Goldstein M eds.
Aarsland, "Validation of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale
(UPDRS) section I as a screening and diagnostic instrument for apathy in patients with Parkinson's disease," Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, vol.
The admission clinical record consisted of data from the PADRECC Admission Questionnaire, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale
(UPDRS; Fahn, Elton, & Members of the UPDRS Development Committee, 1987), and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975).
Staging of the disease was in accordance with Hoehn and Yahr Staging (9) and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale
Inclusion criteria were the following: idiopathic PD confirmed by a movement disorders neurologist; a MiniMental Status Examination (MMSE)  score [greater than or equal to]24 to ensure competence to participate in informed consent and the ability to learn procedurally the use of the rolling walker with laser beam; functional visual acuity for recognizing the laser beam on the rolling walker; FOG in both on- and off-medication states, as indicated by a score of [greater than or equal to]2 on Item 14 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale
(UPDRS) and/or [greater than or equal to]1 on Item 3 of the FOGQ [21-22]; and ability to ambulate for at least household distances with or without an assistive device, as indicated by scoring 0, 1, or 2 on Items 15 and 29 of the UPDRS.
The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale
(UPDRS) is a widely used clinical and research instrument used to assess motor performance, activities of daily living (ADL), behavior and mentation (cognition and mood) (Fahn et al., 1987).
"The people who received caffeine supplements experienced an improvement in their motor symptoms (a five-point improvement on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale
, a rating scale used to measure the severity of the disease) over those who received the placebo.
In a small study, presented at the American Academy of Neurology conference in April 2012, researchers found that Parkinson's patients who participated in weight training twice a week for only six months saw a noticeable improvement in their Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale
(UPDRS) scores at the end of the study, as well as two years after the exercise classes stopped.
The primary outcome was change on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale
III (UP-DRS-III) score off medication from baseline to the end of the study.