cryptorchidism

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cryptorchidism

 [krip-tor´kid-izm]
failure of one or both of the testes to descend into the scrotum. As the unborn male child develops, the testes first appear in the abdomen at about the level of the kidneys. They develop at this site, and in approximately the seventh month of fetal life start to descend to the upper part of the groin. From there they move into the inguinal canal and then, normally, into the scrotum. In its descent, a testis may sometimes be halted in the abdomen or within the canal, becoming an undescended testis. An improperly developed testis may never leave the abdomen, and it may not produce the hormones that induce secondary sex characters. A testis lodged in the canal may well produce these secondary sex characters, but cannot produce spermatozoa. Cases in which both testes fail to descend are uncommon; usually only one is involved and the other produces sufficient numbers of spermatozoa.
Treatment. Often the undescended testis can be brought down into the scrotum by medical treatment with the gonadotropic hormone, and for physical and psychologic reasons this method is preferred. Frequently, however, surgery (called orchiopexy) is required. This operation is not particularly serious and is usually successful. It is best performed before the patient is 5 to 7 years old, since operating at a later age may involve more risk to the cells that produce spermatozoa.
 In cryptorchidism, the testis is not in the scrotum, but may be found in the inguinal canal or in the abdominal cavity. From Damjanov, 2000.

cryp·tor·chi·dism

(krip-tōr'ki-dizm),
Failure of one or both testes to descend.
Synonym(s): cryptorchism

cryptorchidism

/crypt·or·chid·ism/ (krip-tor´kid-izm) failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum.cryptor´chid

cryptorchidism

(krĭp-tôr′kĭ-dĭz′əm) also

cryptorchism

(-kĭz′əm)
n.
A developmental defect marked by the failure of the testes to descend into the scrotum.

crypt·or′chid n.

cryptorchidism

[kriptôr′kidiz′əm]
Etymology: Gk, kryptos, hidden, orchis, testis
a developmental defect in which one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum and are retained in the abdomen or inguinal canal. The testes normally migrate into the scrotal sac at birth, but normal testicular descent depends on timely and synchronous development of other embryonic structures. If spontaneous descent does not occur by the age of 1 year, hormonal injections may be given. If injections are unsuccessful, orchiopexy is usually performed before age 3. Also called cryptorchid testis, cryptorchis, undescended testis.
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Cryptorchidism

cryptorchidism

Undescended testicles A condition in which one or both testicles fail to move from the abdomen, where they develop before birth, into the scrotum; cryptorchidism uncorrected in early childhood is linked to azoospermia and ↑ testicular CA. Cf Anorchia.

cryp·tor·chism

(kript-ōr'kizm)
Failure of one or both testes to descend.
Synonym(s): cryptorchidism.

cryptorchidism

Cryptorchism, undescended testicle. The testicles develop in the abdomen and a testicle that fails to descend before puberty remains permanently sterile. Such a testicle is also liable to develop cancer.

Cryptorchidism

Occurs when a boy is born with one or both testicles in the lower abdomen rather than the scrotum. Known also as undescended testicles, it is the primary risk factor for testicular cancer.

cryptorchidism

the state of being a cryptorchid. An improperly developed testis may never leave the abdomen, and it may not produce the hormones that induce secondary sex characters. A testis lodged in the canal may well produce these secondary sex characters, but cannot produce spermatozoa. Failure of both testicles to descend is uncommon. Usually only one testis is involved and the other produces sufficient spermatozoa to render the animal fertile. Called also rig.

inherited cryptorchidism
there is some evidence that cryptorchidism can be inherited in most species.
References in periodicals archive ?
If hormones, or androgens, including testosterone, don't work properly, it can cause a low sperm count, undescended testicles and cancer.
As an infant, he had a history of a right inguinal hernia and a left undescended testicle.
In recent decades reproductive and developmental problems have become more prevalent--for example, data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that male reproductive problems, including undescended testicles and hypospadias, doubled between 1970 and 1993.
Is it true that if undescended testicles are not corrected in childhood it can make a man sterile later ?
Exceptions to this rule are patients believed to be at especially high risk, such as those born with one or more undescended testicles or those with a history of infertility.
The new research has shown that women who took a combination of more than one mild analgesic during pregnancy, or who took the painkillers during the second trimester of pregnancy, had an increased risk of giving birth to sons with undescended testicles (cryptorchidism).
They were also much more likely to have genital defects, including undescended testicles, a "small and indistinct" scrotum and smaller penis.
True undescended testicles need surgery to bring them down, preferably before the age of 10.
Another worrisome trend is the apparent increase in the incidence of undescended testicles in newborn males - a condition known as cryptorchidism.
There is a higher frequency of undescended testicles in boys born to DES
The number of babies with undescended testicles has nearly doubled in the last half century.
RECENT work has shown that if undescended testicles are corrected before a boy is ten years old, his risk of developing testicular cancer drops back to the average level of one in 450.