Pigs however, are one of the few species so far found to lack functional BAT , because the functional uncoupling protein 1
was lost in pigs in a genetic event .
This type of adipocyte has a large number of mitochondria rich in uncoupling protein 1
Kinget al., "Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1
in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet," FASEB Journal, vol.
These indicators included cold-induced heat generation, cold tolerance, body temperature, and other macrophysiological parameters as well as molecular biomarkers, such as uncoupling protein 1
(UCP1), PPAR-g coactivator 1a (PGC1a), PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16), and beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR) [6-8].
Klingenspor, "Test systems to study the structure and function of uncoupling protein 1
: a critical overview," Front Endocrinol, vol.
Seasonal regulations of energetics, serum concentrations of leptin, and uncoupling protein 1
content of brown adipose tissue in root voles (Microtus oeconomus) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy and acts as a heat producer; BAT cells produce uncoupling protein 1
(UCP1), which uncouples the respiratory chain, that is, proton transport without phosphorylation, inducing thermogenesis instead of ATP production .
Abbreviations FGF21: Fibroblast growth factor 21 MyoG: Myogenin CDKs: Cyclin-dependent kinases MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase PI3K: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase UCP1: Uncoupling protein 1
PGC1[alpha]: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha.
The general consensus is that cold stimulates a greater release of catecholamines by the nervous system, an event that stimulates thermogenesis through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p-38 MAPK) pathways followed by the activation of uncoupling protein 1
(UCP1) and phosphorylation of the specific factors PPAR gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1[alpha]), cAMP response element-binding protein (cReB), and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) [14,15, 44, 45].
In this organ the uncoupling protein 1
(UCP1) is expressed, and this protein is involved in the generation of heat through uncoupled mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis, and this is the reason that it is considered as a thermogenic organ.
In contrast, thermogenic adipose tissue defends against hypothermia and obesity through adaptive thermogenesis mediated by the regulated expression and activity of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1
The oxidation of free fatty acids in the mitochondria of BAT releases heat by the uncoupling protein 1
(UCP-1) [11, 12].