For the induction of anesthesia, 1 mg/kg lidocaine (Aritmal 2%, Osel), 1 [micro]cr/kg remifentanil (Ultiva
5 mg, GlaxoSmithKline) and 2 mg/kg propofol and 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium IV were administered to patients.
Group II was determined as the Diazepam/Remifentanil (DR) group (Diazem 10 mg, N05BA01 Deva Holding, Kocaeli/Turkey; Remifentanil, Ultiva
1 mg, N01AH06, GlaxoSmithKline plc., Italy).
Ten micrograms[micro]g of intravenous fentanyl was administered before the first incision and anesthesia was maintained during the surgical procedure by nitric oxide and oxygen (50%), sevofluorane (2%-3%), and a fentanyl perfusion during surgical procedure (2-4 mg/kg/h) or Ultiva
After induction with propofol (2 mg/kg; Propofol; Fresenius Kabi, Graz, Austria) and fentanyl (1 [micro]g/kg; Talinat; Vem Ilac, Ankara, Turkiye) and intubation facilitated by atracurium (Tracrium; GSK, S.p.A, Italia), anesthesia was maintained with air and [O.sub.2] and TIVA with propofol and remifentanil (Ultiva
; GSK, S.p.A, Italia).
Ameliyathaneye alinan tum hastalara standart anestezi induksiyonu 0,05 mg [kg.sup.-1] midazolam (Dormicum, Roche), 1 mg [kg.sup.-1] remifentanil (Ultiva
, Glaxo Smith), 2 mg [kg.sup.-1] propofol (Pofol, Sandoz), 0,6 mg [kg.sup.-1] rokuronyum (Esmeron, Organon) uygulandi.
Sedation was maintained with a combination of propofol (Diprivan 2%, Astra Zeneca, Belgium), started at 5.7 mg/kg/h and remifentanil (Ultiva
, Glaxo Smith Mine, Belgium) at 0.1 [micro]g/kg/min.
Although morphine and pethidine have both been used as analgesics in this setting, they have been largely replaced by shorter-acting opioids, particularly alfentanil (Rapifen) and remifentanil (Ultiva
All patients were sedated with remifentanil (Ultiva
[R], GlaxoSmithKline, UK) and propofol (Fresofol [R], Fresenius Kabi Korea Ltd, Korea) infusion through a commercial total intravenous anaesthesia pump (Orchestra [R] Base Primea, Fresenius-Vial, France).
Two three-way stopcock valves were used to connect the intravenous catheter to the maintenance lactated Ringer's (LR) delivery line and to the lines delivering propofol 1% (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Homburg, Germany) and remifentanil 20 [micro]g[mL.sup.-1] (Ultiva
, GSK, Midlessex, UK).
Induction of anaesthesia was started with a 1 min infusion of remifentanil (Ultiva
1 mg [mL.sup.-1], GlaxoSmithKline, Istanbul, Turkey) at a dose of 1 mcg [kg.sup.-1] min.
In operating room Propofol was injected 30 seconds after the beginning of the induction period of EEG recordings and lasts as a main anesthetic in all patents accompanied by Remifentanyl (Ultiva
) during surgery and Rocuronium Bromide (Esmeron).