USP21

USP21

A gene on chromosome 1q22 that encodes an enzyme which specifically deubiquitinates histone H2A (but not H2B), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional repression, thereby acting as a coactivator. Deubiquitination of histone H2A relieves the repression of di- and trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys-4, is a prerequisite for subsequent phosphorylation of histone H3 and upregulation of transcription, and is required for chromosome segregation when cells enter into mitosis. USP21 also removes NEDD8 from NEDD8 conjugates. It is highly expressed in the heart, pancreas and in skeletal muscle. USP21 is also a less preferred gene symbol for what is now designated as USP25, see there.
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Family Members USPL1, CYLD, USP1, USP2, USP3, USP4, USP5, USP6, USP7, USP YSP8, USP9x, USP10, USP11, USP12, USP13, USP14, USP15, USP16, USP17L2, USP18, USP19, USP20, USP21, USP22, USP23, USP24, USP25, USP26, USP27, USP28, USP29, USP30, USP31, USP32, USP33, USP34, USP35, USP36, USP37, USP38, USP39, USP40, USP41, USP42, USP43, USP44, USP45, USP46, USP47, USP48, USP49, USP50, USP51, USP52, USP53, USP54 OTUB1, OTUB2, OTUD1, OTUD3, OTUD4, OTUD5, OTUD6A, OTU OTUD6B, OTU1, HIN1L, A20, Cezanne, Cezanne2, TRABID, VCPIP1 UCH UCH-L1, UCH-L3, UCH37/UCH-L5, BAP1 Josephin ATXN3, ATXN3L, JOSD1, JOSD2 JAMM/MPN+ BRCC36, CSNS, POH1, AMSH, AMSH-LP, MPND, MYSM1, PRPF8 Table 2: Deubiquitinases and bone remodeling.
Examples of such researches include the description in Tregs of a positive feedback between USP21 (an E3 deubiquitinase), GATA3 (an essential and sufficient transcription factor for the polarization and function of the Th2 cell lineage), and FOXP3, to promote FOXP3 expression and thus modulate Treg activity [34].
Hou et al., "Identification of the E3 deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific peptidase 21 (USP21) as a positive regulator of the transcription factor GATA3," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Wang et al., "USP21 prevents the generation of T-helper-1-like Treg cells," Nature Communications, vol.
The H2A-specific deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are USP16, USP21, 2A-DUB, and BAP1.
In the terms of GATA3, E3 deubiquitinase ubiquitinspecific peptidase 21 (USP21) can upregulate the expression of GATA3 in Treg cells [11].
Anti-Human USP21 was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co.
[CD4.sup.+][CD25.sup.+][CD45RA.sup.-]Treg cells were prepared for the analysis of the expressions of USP21 and PIM2.
Increased Expression of USP21 and PIM2 in Treg Cells from Asthmatic Patients.
Yu et al., "USP21 negatively regulates antiviral response by acting as a RIG-I deubiquitinase," The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.
The DUBs, A20, CYLD, USP2, USP4, USP7, USP10, USP18, USP21, and USP25 terminate NF-[kappa]B signaling by removing K63-linked ubiquitin chains from signaling molecules [101-123].
dUb Target Ubiquitin-mediated Biological molecules modifications function A20 RIP1, RIP2, TRAF2, K63 Signaling TRAF6, MALT1, NEMO termination CYLD MyD88, TRAF2, K63 Signaling TRAF6, TRAF7, termination RIP1, NEMO USP2[alpha] TRAF6 K63 Signaling termination USP4 TRAF2, TRAF6, TAK1 K63 Signaling termination USP7 TRAF6, NEMO K63 Signaling termination USP10 TRAF6, NEMO K63/M1 Signaling termination USP11 IxBa K48 Proteolytic degradation USP15 IxBa K48 Proteolytic degradation USP18 TAK1, NEMO K63 Signaling termination USP21 RIP1 K63 Signaling termination USP25 TRAF2, TRAF3, K63/K48 Signaling TRAF5, TRAF6 termination/ proteolytic degradation Table 4: TLR expression profile.