UMN


Also found in: Acronyms.

upper motor neurone

; UMN central nervous system motor neurones; extend from cerebral motor cortex to ventral horn of spinal cord (Table 1)
Table 1: Effects of damage to upper and lower motor neurones
Upper motor neurone lesionLower motor neurone lesion
ParalysisSpastic-type contractureFlaccid-type contractures may develop
Tendon reflexesExaggerated; hyperreflexiaReduced/absent; hyporeflexia
Plantar responseExtensor (Babinski's sign positive)Flexor (= normal; Babinski's sign negative)
Extraneous muscle activityNo fasciculations/fibrillationsFasciculations and fibrillations

UMN

upper motor neuron.
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An UMN lesion is a disease or injury that disrupts the anatomical integrity and/or physiological functioning of the UMNs.
UMN lesions alter the activation of the LMN, producing a state of net disinhibition of spinal reflexes.
With the damage, the UMN is unable to override reflexes and keep an extremity from moving.
The UMN axons and other motor tracts are part of the white matter of the brain.
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