The resulting analysis identified 18 genes - some such as AURKA, UBE2C
, TPX2, FAM83D, ZNF217, SALL4 and MMP9 have been previously known to potentially cause cancer.
The connectivity degree of certain genes exceeded 20, including DHX15, NDUFS3, PSMC6, UBE2C
, EIF4G1, DHX9, PSMC3, and HNRNPA2B1 in the upregulated PPI network, and MAPK1, IL6, FN1, MAPK14, STAT3, and VWF in the downregulated PPI network (Table 1).
Two of the E2 enzymes with a role in cancer are UbcH10 (also known as UBE2C or UBC4) and UBE2S (also called E2-EPF), both of which work with E3 ligase APC/C (Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome) in the regulation of the cell cycle.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2C: molecular biology, role in tumorigenesis, and potential as a biomarker.
In the recent reclassification of breast cancers on the basis of copy number expression analysis, the 5q loss is associated with a strong basal-specific signature, including aurora kinase B (AURKB), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase (BUB1), cell division cycle associated 3 (CDCA3), cell division cycle associated 4 (CDCA4), cell division cycle 20 (CDC20), cell division cycle 45 (CDC45), checkpoint kinase 1 (CHEK1), forkhead box M1 (FOXM1), histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), kinesin family member 2C (KIF2C), kinesin family member C1 (KIFC1), methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1-like (MTHFD1L), TTK protein kinase (TTK), and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C
Malmstrom, "Multicenter validation of cyclin D1, MCM7, TRIM29, and UBE2C
as prognostic protein markers in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer," The American Journal of Pathology, vol.
During PCa progression, many androgen-regulated genes including UBE2C
, CND1, p21, and p27 are up-regulated [43, 44].
, Ccnb2, Cdc2a, and Aurkb are all associated with the G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and are also all increased in the WT uterus by [E.sub.2] after 24 hr.
The qPCR primers and hydrolysis probes for the genes CALM2 [calmodulin 2 (phosphorylase kinase, delta)], CHPT1 (choline phosphotransferase 1), CXCL13 [chemokine (C-X-Cmotif) ligand 13], ERBB2 [v-erbb2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian)], ESR1 (estrogen receptor 1), IGKC (immunoglobulin kappa constant), MLPH (melanophilin), MMP1 [matrix metallopeptidase 1 (interstitial collagenase)], OAZ1 (ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1), PGR (progesterone receptor), RAC-GAP1 (Rac GTPase activating protein 1), RPL37A, TOP2A [topoisomerase (DNA) II alpha 170kDa], and UBE2C
(ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C) were identified with Primer Express[TM] software (Applied Biosystems) according to the manufacturer's instructions.
(a) Probe Gene Fold- Unigene ID set ID Gene title symbol change P[53.sup.(+)] cells 520028 31692_at heat shock 70kDA protein 1A HSPA1A 4.7 419 34585_at distal-less homeo box 2 DLX2 2.3 171695 1005_at dual specificity phosphatase 1 DUSP1 2.1 (MKP-1) P[53.sup.(-)] cells 142912 36799_at frizzled homolog 2 (Drosophila) FZD2 4.2 50308 40121_at huntingtin interacting protein HIP2 2.5 2 93002 1651_at ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2C
2.2 E2C 524630 36604_at ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2N 2.2 E2N (a) Gene annotations from NetAffx (http://www.affymetrix.com/analysis/index.affx).