type 2 diabetes mellitus


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type 2 diabetes mellitus

a type of diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin resistance in appropriate hepatic glucose production and impaired insulin secretion. Onset is usually after 40 years of age but can occur at any age, including during childhood and adolescence. Familial aggregation implies that genetic factors and environmental factors, such as obesity and a sedentary lifestyle, superimposed on genetic susceptibility are involved in the onset. The majority of persons with type 2 diabetes are obese; glucose tolerance is often improved by modest weight loss and increased activity. Persons with type 2 diabetes can manage their disorder with a meal plan, increased activity, oral antidiabetes agents such as insulin secretagogues, biguanides, alpha glucosidase inhibitors and insulin sensitizers, and insulin. Maturity onset diabetes of young is a rare type 2 diabetes, and an autosomal-dominant inheritance is clearly established. Previously called adult-onset diabetes, ketosis-resistant diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, stabile diabetes. Also called type II diabetes mellitus. See also diabetes mellitus.

type 2 diabetes mellitus

Adult-onset diabetes, diabetes mellitus type 2, NIDDM, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Endocrinology A mild form of DM with an onset > age 40, ↓ incidence of DKA, accompanied by microvascular complications, which comprises 90% of DM; 80% of type 2 DM Pts are obese–an association known as 'diabesity', insulin-deficient, insulin-resistant Diagnosis
1. Fasting glucose is 7.8 mmol/L–US > 140 mg/dL on ≥ 2 occasions or.
2. When in a 75g GTT, the 2-hr and one other value–drawn at the 30, 60, or 90 min intervals are > 11.2 mmol/L–US > 200 mg/dL Clinical Blurred vision, poorly healing cuts, paresthesias in hands/feet, recurring skin, mouth, or bladder infections, any type 1 Sx–thirst, ↑ appetite, rapid weight loss, fatigue  Treatment type 2 DM does not usually require exogenous insulin; insulin may be required during 'crises' Prognosis Relatively good, especially if controllable by lifestyle modifications. See Glucose tolerance curve, MODY. Cf type 1 DM.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

One of the two major types of diabetes mellitus, characterized by late age of onset (30 years or older), insulin resistance, high levels of blood sugar, and little or no need for supple-mental insulin. It was formerly known as adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
Mentioned in: Insulin Resistance

type 2 diabetes mellitus (formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM] or maturity-onset diabetes)

chronic-onset disease often presenting in middle to old age (peak age of onset = >35 years); characterized by increasing insulin resistance (subject releases normal/raised amounts of insulin from pancreatic β cells, but insulin does not react with insulin receptors of peripheral tissue cells; intracellular reactions are impoverished/absent due to unavailability of intracellular glucose; patients present with symptoms similar to type 1 diabetes (polyuria, polydypsia and glycosuria; dehydration and tiredness; history of recurrent infections; dyslipidaemia), but are characteristically overweight and hypertensive, with hypercholesterolaemia; symptom onset is gradual, sometimes extending over years; patients may remain undiagnosed until secondary pathologies (due to micro- and macrovascular disease) develop, e.g. coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, eye disease, renal dysfunction, painless foot ulceration and foot infections; type 2 diabetes patients are treated by strict dietary control, oral hypoglycaemic drugs, and insulin supplementation for life as necessary (contrast with maturity-onset diabetes of the young)

Patient discussion about type 2 diabetes mellitus

Q. Type 2 Diabetics solution My uncle is suffering from type 2 diabetics and i want to know that is there any permanent solution for type 2 diabities. Very worried about weight loss too. Any one there to give us a permanent solution?

A. Type 2 diabetes is due to improper use of insulin or insulin resistance.

There is a web site given below which provides information on alternative medicines for diabetes. Alternative medicines - ayurveda herbs, homeopathy, yoga and acupressure treatments.
http://healthy-ojas.com/html/diabetes_mellitus.html
http://healthy-ojas.com/html/alternative_medicine_diabetes.html

Q. Women with diabetes are in general found with type 1 or with type 2 diabetes during pregnancy and why?

A. Women develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy and after pregnancy the gestational diabetes goes, if not this gestational diabetes has chances to develop into type 2 diabetes. A pregnant woman can also have type 1 and 2 diabetes equally and during pregnancy she may get gestational diabetes.

Q. Is Diabetes type 2 a chronic disease? I have been diagnosed with Diabetes; does this mean I will always have it from now on?

A. I was a type 2 diabetic for 15 years. I had a gastric bypass, lost a ton of weight and no longer test as a diabetic. But, my doctors say "once a diabetic, always a diabetic." So the tendency is still there and must be addressed always. My problem is not evident but now I have kidney disease and it is attributed to diabetes with complications. Eat right, get exercise and lose weight. I hope you educe your numbers so you won't risk the complications. This is your best goal for now. Diabetes is being constantly researched, so the future looks bright and maybe a cure is on the horizon! Blessings!

More discussions about type 2 diabetes mellitus
References in periodicals archive ?
Fortunately, in the past few years, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several new drugs for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
com, and is approved in Europe for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus to achieve glycemic control in combination with oral glucose-lowering medicinal products and/or basal insulin when these, together with diet and exercise, do not provide adequate glycemic control.
Study evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of taspoglutide in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with metformin
Effect of Canagliflozin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on Age and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (Poster No.
Canagliflozin is Effective and Generally Well Tolerated in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Stage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease" (abstract 73-LB)
12 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- A team of Allegheny General Hospital (AGH) physicians led by neurosurgical pioneer Peter Jannetta, MD, has made an important new discovery linking the central nervous system to the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
ASP1941, a Novel and Selective Inhibitor of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 (SGLT2), Reduces Fasting Plasma Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Over 28 Days (Poster # 566-P)
The proposed therapeutic indication for Exubera is for the treatment of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus not adequately controlled with oral antidiabetic agents and requiring insulin therapy; and for the treatment of adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, in addition to long or intermediate acting subcutaneous insulin, for whom the potential benefits of adding inhaled insulin outweigh the potential safety concerns.
The purpose of the advisory is to summarize the currently available data concerning TZDs and cardiovascular risk, and provide practical recommendations to healthcare workers seeking to minimize the burden of cardiovascular disease and other complications in their patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
It is related to a constellation of abnormalities that include obesity, abnormal lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance that together yield enhanced risks of cardiovascular problems and Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
After analysing data from six surveys conducted between 1991 and 2010, it was revealed that there is a persistently high prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among people aged above 20 years in Oman over the past two decades.