These theories include Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Herzberg's two factor theory, McClelland's need for achievement theory and Alfred's E.R.G theory.Process theories emphasize the cognitive differences of the individuals.
Motivation is mostly elaborated as a behavior that develops intrinsically or within an individual by need-based approach.6 Ololube recognize two need-based theories: Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman's two factor theory.7 Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often illustrated as a pyramid with the survival need at the base and the self-actualization need at the apex.
The authors of these studies derived factors from Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman's two factor theory. Goswami and Dwivedi conducted a research to identify the factors determining the motivational level of male and female academicians.
Commenting on two factor theory of motivation points to the Frederick Herzberg assertion that the powerful motivator in our lives is not money; it is the opportunity to learn to grow in responsibilities, contribute to others and be recognized for achievement.