A low prevalence of gill infestation by the turbellarian
Urastoma cyprinae is commonly reported in the oyster Crassostrea virginica from Canada (Brun et al.
A Urastoma-Eke turbellarian
was detected in gills of three Ensis macha sampled in May.
Dual origins of mesoderm in a basal member of the spiralian clade: cell lineage studies in the polyclad turbellarian
Because our data were not normally distributed and data transformation did not change the data to normal, we used the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a Dunn's test to compare (1) the number of turbellarians
found in the different regions of the gill (microhabitat distribution), (2) the parasite intensities registered in different seasons at each sampling location, and (3) the parasite intensities observed in the 3 host size classes.
Molecular analyses that include other lower turbellarian
groups (for example, the Catenulida and the Nemertodermatida) and the Orthonectida, a group tentatively included in the Mesozoa, will provide further information for understanding the phylogenetic position of the dicyemids.
We observed the presence of intestinal and gill turbellarians
, which didn't induce damage to the organism (McGladdery et al.
The Spiralia comprises several invertebrate phyla including the molluscs, annelids, nemerteans, sipunculids, echiurans, and some turbellarian
Such a mode of adhesion has already been described in bacteria (Corpe, 1974; Marshall, 1974) and diatoms (Cooksey, 1981), and has been proposed in several turbellarians
and archiannelids (Martin, 1978).
found infesting the gills of Caloosahatchee oysters elicited a light to moderate hemocytic response from the gills and formed a mucus coat around themselves.
Paravortex mesodesma (Grafillidae) was recorded in the lumen of the intestine of specimens from three of the five studied localities.
are acoelomate, soft-bodied worms that have a sac-like gut and typically ciliated epidermal cells.
On the other hand, the commercial sized specimens were parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms, ciliates, turbellarians