As part of our surveillance assignment, using serologic and molecular assays, we detected 470 laboratory-confirmed human hantavirus cases from 2012-2016 in France, including Tula virus
(n = 1), Seoul virus (n = 6), and PUUV (n = 228) infections (6).
Of note, hantavirus screening for military operating in the European field should ideally comprise all hitherto known Old World hantaviral pathogens, being HTNV, SEOV, PUUV, DOBV, and even Tula virus
(TULV), bearing in mind that all classic serological techniques can suffer from cross-reactions, including even PUUV cross-reacting with its American, but genetically related counterparts SNV and Andes virus (ANDV) .
 Nonstandard abbreviations: HFRS, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; HCPS, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome; DOBV, Dobrava virus; PUUV, Puumala virus; TULV, Tula virus
; HTNV, Hantaan virus; SEOV, Seoul virus; ANDV, Andes virus; SNV, Sin Nombre virus; RT-PCR, reverse transcription-PCR; CT, threshold cycle.
tanezumi; SEOV, Seoul virus; SERV, Serang virus; Si, Singapore; SK, South Korea; SNV, Sin nombre virus; THAIV, Thailand virus; TULV, Tula virus
; UK, United Kingdom; US, United States; Vie, Vietnam.
Previously only hantaviruses from murine-associated lineages (Seoul virus [SEOV] and SEOV-like viruses) had been reported in the United Kingdom, despite the abundance of potential vole hosts in the mainland United Kingdom and the endemicity of vole-associated hantavirus lineages (Puumala virus [PUUV] and Tula virus
) in mainland Europe (2).
Extensive host sharing of central European Tula virus
. J Virol.
Antibodies to PUUV, Tula virus
(TULV), and Seoul virus (SEOV) have been found in rodent populations in the Netherlands, and TULV has been isolated from common voles (Microtus arvalis) (5,6).
These findings underline the current problem of identifying hantavirus reservoirs (14) as was recently also observed for European Tula virus
At least 5 hantavirus species are known to circulate in Europe: Dobrava-Belgrade virus, Puumala virus (PUUV), Seoul virus, Saarema virus, and Tula virus
agrestis voles, among the most numerous mammals in mainland Britain, have not been shown to be primary carriers of a specific hantavirus, although recent studies suggest that they might be involved in the maintenance of Tula virus
in Germany (10).
Although 3 hantaviruses, Puumala virus (PUUV), Dobrava-Belgrade virus, and Tula virus
circulate in rodent hosts in Germany and can infect humans (6-8), most hantavirus infections in humans are caused by PUUV.
Nevertheless, other hantaviruses are harbored by > 1 (related) host species, e.g., Tula virus
has been found in Microtus arvalis, M.