Stevens, "Mast cell-restricted tryptases: structure and function in inflammation and pathogen defense," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Pharmacological mast cell stabilization (ketotifen) and tryptase and chymase inhibition (nafamostat and NK3201, resp.) decrease mucosal damage in TNBS colitis [37-40].
Mast cell tryptase, a serine protease, has been shown to degrade cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases and aids in bacterial defense .
Mast cell tryptases and chymases in inflammation and host defense.
In the present study, we co-cultured myocardial microvascular endothelial cells (MMVECs) with MCs to study 1) whether MC granules (MCGs) can promote angiogenesis in MMVECs, 2) how tryptase and chymase play a role in modulating MC-induced neovessel maturation, and 3) whether co-culturing MMVECs with MCs leads to stimulation of Ang-Tie-2 signaling.
Increased numbers of submucosal mast cells are found in IC patients and antigenic exposure of mast cells causes the release of pharmacologically active mediators (e.g., histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and tryptases
) that have significant effect on smooth muscle, vascular epithelium and inflammation.
MC-granules contain biogenic amines (histamine and, only in rodents, serotonin), serglycin proteoglycans (heparin and chondroitin sulphate), serine proteases (tryptases, chymases, and carboxypeptidases), cytokines (such as TNF-[alpha]), and growth factors (such as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)) .
(3) The concentration of MCs tryptase was found significantly higher also in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS subjects .
Caughey, "Mast cell tryptases and chymases in inflammation and host defense," Immunological Reviews, vol.
(1) Prestored cytoplasmic granules: (a) biogenic amines (e.g., histamine), (b) serglycin proteoglycans (e.g., heparin and chondroitin sulphate), (c) serine proteases (tryptases, chymases, and carboxypeptidases), (d) some cytokines (e.g., TNF-[alpha] and VEGFA).
[19, 20] found that the levels of mast cell mediators, such as histamine and tryptase, are considerably elevated in BALF from smokers.
Clinical data show increased levels of mast cell tryptase and degranulated mast cells in the lavage and bronchial tissue of smokers [30-33].