trypanosomiasis

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trypanosomiasis

 [tri-pan″o-so-mi´ah-sis]
infection with trypanosomes.
African trypanosomiasis an often fatal disease of Africa caused by Trypanosoma gambiense or T. rhodesiense and involving the central nervous system. The parasites are transmitted to human beings from cattle or other animals by the bite of the tsetse fly. Usually the first symptom is inflammation at the site of the bite, appearing within 48 hours. Within several weeks the parasites invade the blood and lymph, and eventually they attack the central nervous system. Characteristic symptoms include intermittent fever, rapid heartbeat, and enlargement of the lymph nodes and spleen. In the advanced stage of the disease there are personality changes, apathy, sleepiness, disturbances of speech and gait, and severe emaciation.



Pharmacologic treatment should begin as soon as possible and is based on lab results and patient symptoms. suramin, pentamidine isethionate, and melarsoprol are the most common medications used. Pentamidine isethionate or suramin may be injected to remove parasites from the blood or lymph nodes before onset of disease, but the most effective preventive measure is eradication of the tsetse fly.
American trypanosomiasis (South American trypanosomiasis) a form found from the southern United States south into South America, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi; it is transmitted to humans from wild animals by means of the feces of a blood-sucking bug. The parasites multiply around the points of entry before entering the blood and eventually attacking the heart, brain, and other tissues. Called also Chagas' disease.



The acute form often attacks children. Early symptoms include swelling of the eyelids and the development of a hard, red, painful nodule on the skin. Enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen occurs, along with inflammation of the heart muscle, psychic changes, and general debility. In adults the chronic form often resembles heart disease.

The control strategy suggested by the World Health Organization is to interrupt transmission of the disease by the vectors and to systematically screen blood donors. Preventive measures, such as the wearing of protective clothing and the use of insecticides, are of primary importance. Medication with antiprotozoal agents is usually effective when administered during the acute stage of infection.

try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

(tri-pan'ō-sō-mī'ă-sis, trip'ă-nō-),
Any disease caused by a trypanosome.
Synonym(s): trypanosomosis

trypanosomiasis

/try·pano·so·mi·a·sis/ (tri-pan″o-so-mi´ah-sis) infection with trypanosomes.
African trypanosomiasis  human trypanosomiasis endemic in areas of tropical Africa, due to infection with Trypanosoma gambiense (Gambian t.) or T. rhodesiense (Rhodesian t.); it is transmitted by the bite of species of Glossina (tsetse flies) and in advanced stage attacks the central nervous system, resulting in meningoencephalitis that leads to lethargy, tremors, convulsions, and eventually coma and death.
South American trypanosomiasis  Chagas' disease.

trypanosomiasis

(trĭ-păn′ə-sō-mī′ə-sĭs)
n. pl. trypanosomia·ses (-sēz′)
Infection with or disease caused by trypanosomes.

trypanosomiasis

[trip′ənō′sōmī′əsis]
Etymology: Gk, trypanon + soma + osis, condition
an infection by an organism of the Trypanosoma genus. Kinds of trypanosomiasis are African trypanosomiasis and Chagas' disease. Also called trypanosomal infection.

trypanosomiasis

(1) South American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). 
(2) African trypanosomiasis: 
• West African—chronic or Gambian trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. 
• East African—acute or Rhodesian trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodinense.

trypanosomiasis

See American trypanosomiasis.

try·pan·o·so·mi·a·sis

(trī-pan'ō-sŏ-mī'ă-sis)
Any disease caused by a trypanosome.
Synonym(s): trypanosomosis.

trypanosomiasis

In Africa, a disease of the nervous system caused by infection with the single-celled parasite Trypanosoma brucei . Commonly known as ‘sleeping sickness’ African trypanosomiasis features extensive brain inflammation with headache, loss of concentration, lassitude, a vacant expression, drooping eyelids and finally loss of all motivation so that the affected person may starve to death. Unless treated, the condition ends in seizures, coma and death. See also TSETSE FLY and CHAGAS DISEASE (South American trypanosomiasis).

Gambia,

country in West Africa, bordering North Atlantic Ocean and Senegal.
Gambian sleeping sickness - caused by parasite Trypanosoma brucei and transmitted through bite of an infected tsetse fly. Synonym(s): trypanosomiasis

trypanosomiasis

clinically a nondescript disease which may be peracute, acute or chronic. Called also nagana, mal de caderas and others. See also dourine, surra. The diagnosis is based on a positive blood smear and the presence of an insect vector, often a tsetse fly, or a history of mating in the case of dourine.

American trypanosomiasis
a disease of humans caused by infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.
References in periodicals archive ?
Serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis caused by non-tsetse transmitted Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax parasites using the soluble form of aTrypanozoon variant surface glycoprotein antigen.
1894-1953', Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 63/3 (2008): 285-322; Maitseo Bolaane, 'Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Control in Okavango Delta, c.
Reactive oxygen radicals generated during infections such as trypanosomosis can attack erythrocyte membrane, induce its oxidation and thus trigger haemolysis [23].
Prevalence of tsetse fly and ruminant trypanosomosis in Katsina-Ala Local Government Area, Nigeria.
This method is especially suited to the developing countries since most use diminazene to treat livestock for trypanosomosis.
In Colombia, the bovine trypanosomosis has been studied by Clarkson (1976), Betancourt & Wells (1979); Betancourt (1982), Otte & Abuabara (1991), and Otte et al.
The presence of the tsetse fly in one third of the African continent and the disease trypanosomosis it transmits is considered the major barrier to the development of productive livestock.
Review on camel trypanosomosis (Surra) due to Trypanosoma evansi: Epidemiology and host response.
Most studies on the relationship between trypanosomosis and serum testosterone are carried out in experimentally infected animals.
One of these adaptations is their documented tolerance to trypanosomosis (Roberts and Gray, 1973), a parasitic disease due to infection with Trypanosoma sp.
Several authors reported the prevalence of Sarcoptic mange in camels and considered mange as second important disease in camels after trypanosomosis due to its rapid spread and the severe effect on camels' behavior (Higgins, 1983; Nayel and Abu-Samra, 1986 and Pegram and Higgins, 1992).