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species that is a worldwide nonpathogenic parasite in the blood of rats widely used for laboratory study; it is transmitted by the rat flea, Nosopsyllus fasciatus.
a multispecies genus of protozoa in the family Trypanosomatidae, parasitic in the blood, lymph and tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans; most species live part of their life cycle in the intestines of insects and other invertebrates, the flagellate stage being found only in the vertebrate host. The species which cause serious diseases of domestic animals are listed individually below. Species of minor pathogenicity include T. avium (birds), T. binneyi (platypus), T. calmetti (ducklings), T. diazi (capuchin monkeys), T. dimorphon (domestic animals generally), T. gallinarum (fowls), T. melophagium (sheep), T. minasense (monkeys, e.g. marmosets), T. nabiasi (rabbits), T. primatum (chimpanzees, gorillas), T. rangeli (humans, dogs, cats). Called also T. ariarii, T. guatamalense, T. saimiriae (squirrel monkeys), T. sanmartini (squirrel monkeys), T. theodori (pigs).
Trypanosoma brucei (syn. Trypanosoma pecaudi)
causes a severe disease in all species including horse, cattle, sheep, dogs and cats.
Trypanosoma congolense (syn. Trypanosoma pecorum, Trypanosoma nanum, Trypanosoma montgomeryi)
causes diseases in all domestic animals but most serious in humans (sleeping sickness), cattle (nagana); reservoir hosts are wild ruminants.
Trypanosoma cruzi (syn. Trypanosoma escomeli)
a disease of humans (Chagas' disease, American trypanosomiasis) which has reservoirs in pigs, dogs and cats and many wild animals. It causes disease in these hosts and may be fatal to dogs.
occurs in various species but is most serious in equids, in which it is characterized by posterior paralysis; called Mal de Caderas.
a serious disease of equids which it is transmitted venereally and is called dourine.
causes infection in many species including camels, horses and dogs. The disease in horses is surra. In cattle and buffalo the disease is subclinical but these species act as reservoirs.
Trypanosoma gambiense (syn. Trypanosoma hominis, Trypanosoma nigeriense, Trypanosoma ugandense)
a chronic disease of humans which can occur also in cattle, goats, sheep, horses, dogs and cats.
occurs in rats and may cause death in ratlings.
causes a serious disease in humans but only a mild one in ruminants and other domestic animals and monkeys.
found in pigs in which it causes a fatal disease.
considered to be nonpathogenic in cattle, in which it occurs almost universally but may cause illness in stressed animals.
found in most ruminants. Similar to T. vivax in pathogenicity.
Trypanosoma vivax (syn. Trypanosoma caprae, Trypanosoma angolense)
found in ruminants and horses but not pigs, dogs, cats. Causes a serious and fatal disease in cattle and goats, especially in animals under stress.