Enviromental occurrence of the Whipple's disease bacterium (Tropheryma whippelii
Altwegg, "Whipple's disease and "Tropheryma whippelii
"," Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.
Brief report: uveitis caused by Tropheryma whippelii
Other hepatic bacterial infections that may cause granulomas include Whipple disease (Tropheryma whippelii
), (32) "typhoid nodules" (Salmonella), syphilis, Chlamydia infection, R equi infection, with a granulomatous inflammatory pattern that mimics that of M avium-intracellulare; and melioidosis (Pseudomonas pseudomallei), with either small neutrophilic microabscesses or granulomas.
von Herbay, "Environmental occurrence of the Whipple's disease bacterium (Tropheryma whippelii
)," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.
Biopsies returned positive for periodic acid-Schiff positive organisms consistent with Tropheryma whippelii
and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction.
PCR against Tropheryma whippelii
has facilitated diagnosis in recent years.
Another unculturable microbe that has been specifically detected by PCR and probe analysis is Tropheryma whippelii
, the causative agent of Whipple disease [128, 172, 173].
Polymerase chain reaction analysis for diagnosis of Tropheryma whippelii
infective endocarditis in two patients with no previous evidence of Whipple's disease.
DNA in saliva of patients without Whipple's disease.
(60,61) Whipple disease, infection by Tropheryma whippelii
, almost always involves the small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes and causes pericarditis in 75%, endocarditis in 50%, myocardial fibrosis in 10%, and myocarditis in 1% of cases.
The bacteria were thus classified within the family Actinomycetes (classification was based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis), and the name Tropheryma whippelii
was proposed (5,6); the bacterium was later modified to Tropheryma whipplei by La Scola et al.