Abalone larvae generally exhibit positive phototaxis during trocophore
stage (Ino 1952, Yano & Ogawa 1977, Tanaka 1978) (but see Leighton 1989), indicating upward swimming behavior.
2003 Iwao 2008 Fertilized egg na na na Cleavage (4-cell stage) 1-2 h na na Advanced embryo 6 h na na (8-cell stage) Prehatched out larvae 12-14h na na Hatched trocophore
larvae na 10 h 8 h 25 min at 23.
Pink abalone eggs are negatively buoyant; the trocophore
larvae, shortly after hatching (12-18 h), swim to the surface (negative geotaxis), complete larval development within 4-17 days, and then begin settlement (Leighton 1974, Leighton 2000).