The results showed that aspartate, betaine, choline, cysteine, ethanol, and threonine were increased over 2-fold in the muscle; propionate and trimethylamine were increased over 2-fold in the plasma; and alanine, glycerol, inosine, lactate, and pyruvate were increased over 2-fold and acetoacetate, arginine, citrulline, creatine, glutamine, glutarate, hippurate, lysine, methionine, phenylacetylglycine, taurine, trigonelline, trimethylamine, and trimethylamine N-oxide
were decreased below 0.
30] investigated the effects of gut microbial-dependent trimethylamine N-oxide
(TMAO) in patients with CKD.
The investigators measured levels of trimethylamine N-oxide
(TMAO)--a compound formed when bacteria in the digestive tract break down dietary nutrients found in red meat, eggs, and meat products--in 935 PAD patients.
, a metabolite associated with atherosclerosis, exhibits complex genetic and dietary regulation.
This novel approach centers around the research team's previous discovery that TMAO -- trimethylamine N-oxide
, a byproduct formed in the gut during digestion of animal fats -- is linked to atherosclerosis and heart disease.
TMA is subsequently metabolized by flavin monooxygenase (FMO), a liver enzyme family, to trimethylamine N-oxide
(TMAO), [sup], which is associated with obesity, [sup],,, metabolic syndrome, [sup], fatty liver disease, [sup], and cancer.
This study demonstrated that higher plasma levels of choline and two of its metabolites, trimethylamine N-oxide
(TMAO) and betaine, are associated with atherosclerosis in humans and mice.
Egg yolks and red meat appear to significantly increase the risk of coronary heart disease and cancer due to increased production of trimethylamine N-oxide
, or TMAO, a metabolite of meat and egg yolks linked to the clogging of arteries.
2]CH=, Lipid CH=CH and trimethylamine N-oxide
were significantly decreased, while isoleucine, valine, lysine, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, pyruvate, creatine, choline and phosphocholine increased in the plasma of the model group.
High blood levels of the bacterial by-product of L-carnitine, called trimethylamine N-oxide
, or TMAO, were an "astoundingly good" warning sign of impending heart attack, stroke and death, says study coauthor Stanley Hazen of the Cleveland Clinic.
promotes vascular inflammation through signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-[kapp]B.