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A subfamily of insects (family Reduviidae, suborder Heteroptera) that are vertebrate bloodsuckers and include such important disease vector species as Panstrongylus, Rhodnius, and Triatoma; they are commonly called conenose or kissing bugs.
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Although laboratory rearing imposes a certain degree of selection pressure on aspects of insect biology, all studied cohorts from recently colonized triatomines were exposed to the standardized environmental conditions that were favourable to their survival; hence, it was assumed that estimates of life-table parameters derived from data collected from the colonized wild strains represent a maximum expression of their life-table parameters and are likely to reflect true differences between geographically isolated strains.
Risk factors for reinvasion of human dwellings by sylvatic triatomines in northern Bahia State, Brazil.
Trypanosoma cruzi is a heteroxenous flagellate exhibiting a sylvatic transmission cycle vectored to mammalian reservoir species by triatomine insects, blood-feeding reduviids which defecate infective trypomastigotes onto the skin, coat, or nests of host species.
8%, followed by the raccoon (Procyon lotor), found in nearly 30% of triatomines (Figure).
Collected adult triatomines and first and fifth instars were identified according to Lent and Wygodzinsky (13).
cruzi to dogs, considering the diversity of triatomine vectors, reservoir hosts, and previous documentation of canine disease (5,7).
Also, triatomines can survive for months in harvested crops; thus, multiple hygiene interventions are potentially necessary along the food production line (14).
Feeding behavior of triatomines from the southwestern United States: an update on potential risk for transmission of Chagas disease.
In Arizona, humans may be at a greater risk for vectorial transmission of the disease than previously thought because human populations are rapidly expanding into habitats where infected triatomines (20-22) and wild mammalian reservoirs such as packrats, mice, armadillos, raccoons, and opossums (23-27) are plentiful.
Oral transmission occurs by consumption of foods contaminated with triatomines or their feces or by consumption of raw meat from infected mammalian sylvatic hosts (3).
In the Brazilian Amazon region, where domiciled triatomines have not been reported, human cases of Chagas disease have been increasing (2).