However, as with our current study of treponemal infections, definitive evidence for transmission and the direction of transmission have not been established for these pathogens.
Our findings of treponemal infections among macaques in Southeast Asia, along with published work showing infection in NHPs in Africa (4), should encourage holistic and One-Health approaches to eradication and surveillance activities, including consideration of monitoring NHPs in yaws-endemic regions.
The RPR (rapid plasma reagin) test, a lipoidal test (nontreponemal) for IgG and IgM typically associated with treponemal infection, can occasionally elicit nonspecific responses.
We conducted a retrospective review of the data and found that none of the macaques had lesions typical of treponemal infection (4).
The primary cause of death in 18 of our cases was attributed to treponemal infection. This is a high rate for a treatable condition, and it should be routinely screened for.
Primary cause of death that changed as a result of placental histology report N From To 3 Unknown (46) PTL with chorio-amnionitis with intact membranes 14 Chorio-amnionitis 4 Abruptio placentae 1 Treponemal infection 24 IUGR 3 Spontaneous PTL IUGR 2 Chorio-amnionitis IUGR 1 Hypertension-related IUGR 1 Intrapartum hypoxia PTL with chorio-amnionitis with intact membranes 2 Cervical incompetence PTL with chorio-amnionitis with intact membranes 1 Hypertension-related Chorio-amnionitis 2 Maternal disease Chorio-amnionitis Table V.
This bacterium causes syphilis and is the only sexually acquired treponemal infection. The endemic subspecies (i.e., T.
In children, treponemal infection as indicated by positive screening and confirmatory tests might be caused by 1) nonsexual exposure to a person infected with non-venereal T.
To assist in evaluation of refugee and immigrant children, a list of countries in which endemic treponemal infection has been reported is provided.
Although the new finding does not resolve the debate about the origin of treponemal infections
, the immunological technique will help scientists trace the history of these and other infections.
As has been demonstrated previously in southern Africa, the utility of both treponemal and non-treponemal serological tests for the diagnosis of primary syphilis is questionable, (16) since many patients with primary syphilis are seronegative (especially by the RPR test), while others with ulcerations caused by other organisms are seropositive (especially by the FTA-ABS test) as a result of previously treated treponemal infections
. In these studies, we have examined the effect of HIV co-infection in patients with M-PCR-confirmed primary syphilis on the performance of treponemal and non-treponemal serological tests.
Other treponemal infections
such as yaws cannot be differentiated serologically from syphilis, and a diagnosis of yaws is based on clinicoepidemiologic features (8); however, yaws is not endemic to Kumasi, and because this child had no clinical evidence of yaws, this disease is unlikely to be the cause of the seroconversion.