Current approaches to extrapolating estimates of in vitro potency to external doses assume that the nominal concentrations used in the in vitro assays are equivalent to plasma concentrations and that the in vitro toxicokinetic
assays and the in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) modeling sufficiently capture the complex toxicokinetic
behaviors of industrial and environmental chemicals as well as pesticides and pharmaceuticals.
Bioanalytical lab services offered include: drug sample analysis, animal metabolite profiling, toxicokinetic
analyses, and immune function testing.
of amphetamines: metabolism and toxicokinetic
data of designer drugs, of amphetamine, methamphetamine and their N-alkyl derivatives [Review].
Unilever have developed a toxicokinetic
and toxicodynamic skin allergy assessment model that aims to mathematically model the induction of skin sensitization to enable the prediction of a safe level of skin exposure (MacKay et al., 2013; Maxwell et al., 2014).
For example, one could use toxicokinetic
models [see, e.g., the models of Pearce et al.
DBS sampling provides higher quality toxicokinetic
data while reducing test article, shipping, and storage requirements, according to the company, and conforms to the three guiding principles of research: reduction, replacement, and refinement.
However, to date, the chiral character of MDMA has not been taken into account, although the pharmacologic, toxicologic, and toxicokinetic
properties of its enantiomers are known to differ considerably (2,4,15-17).
In addition, the proposed algorithm can potentially reduce the number of animal experiments needed, for instance, for toxicokinetic
purposes (e.g., to determine chemical bioconcentration and biotransformation).
It is rare that risk assessors have human toxicokinetic
data available to characterize interindividual variability, and therefore default assumptions must be applied.
Topics will include the epidemiology of poisoning and substance abuse, pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic
behavior of the most prevalent poisons, mechanisms of toxic injuries and their resultant clinical manifestations, critical assessment of laboratory detection methods, quality assurance programs for the clinical toxicology laboratory service, and more.