irradiation

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irradiation

 [ĭ-ra″de-a´shun]
2. the dispersion of nervous impulse beyond the normal path of conduction.
3. the exposure of a substance to radiation, which consists of any of numerous kinds of rays that travel at the speed of light. Every living thing is subject to some irradiation by cosmic rays, ultraviolet rays in sunlight, and other natural radiation in the environment, all of which is usually slight and harmless. In large amounts, however, certain kinds of radiation cause direct harm to living cells, especially those rays that have a greater frequency and produce more energy. Irradiation of certain foods, including milk, kills harmful bacteria, prevents spoilage, and sometimes increases its vitamin efficiency. X-ray photography is used in industrial research and in diagnosis of disorders within the body.

Radiation therapy usually refers to treatment by x-rays and gamma rays. X-rays are produced by bombarding a tungsten target with high-speed electrons in a vacuum tube; gamma rays are emitted during the decay of radioisotopes. X-rays may be employed to kill organisms causing skin diseases, for example, or to destroy the abnormal cells that form tumors. Gonads, blood cells, and cancer cells are especially sensitive to radiation, particularly to x-rays and gamma rays.

Other rays are also used medically. Infrared rays produce a radiant heat used for the treatment of sprains and bursitis; tissues such as muscles and joints are relaxed and soothed by the penetration of these rays. Ultraviolet rays are used in sun lamps to treat skin diseases, such as acne and psoriasis. See also discussion of protection against harmful effects of radiation under radiation.
extended field irradiation irradiation of an extended field in radiation therapy for malignant lymphoma.
external beam irradiation radiation therapy in which the radiation is emitted from a source located at a distance from the body.
hemibody irradiation external beam irradiation involving exposure of half the body.
interstitial irradiation see radiation therapy.
involved field irradiation irradiation of only the involved field in radiation therapy for malignant lymphoma.
mantle field irradiation irradiation of a mantle field in radiation therapy for malignant lymphoma.
total body irradiation (whole-body irradiation) TBI; external beam irradiation involving exposure of the entire body.

ir·ra·di·a·tion

(i-rā'dē-ā'shŭn),
1. The subjective enlargement of a bright object seen against a dark background.
See also: radiation.
2. Exposure to the action of electromagnetic radiation (for example, heat, light, x-rays).
See also: radiation.
3. The spreading of nervous impulses from one area in the brain or cord, or from a tract, to another tract.
See also: radiation.
[L. ir-radio, (in-r), pp. -radi-atus, to beam forth]

irradiation

/ir·ra·di·a·tion/ (ĭ-ra″de-a´shun)
2. the dispersion of nervous impulse beyond the normal path of conduction.
3. the application of rays, such as ultraviolet rays, to a substance to increase its vitamin efficiency.

irradiation

(ĭ-rā′dē-ā′shən)
n.
1. The act of exposing or the condition of being exposed to radiation.
2. The use or application of ionizing radiation, especially in medical treatment and for the sterilization or preservation of food.

irradiation

[irā′dē·ā′shən]
Etymology: L, irradiare, to beam upon
exposure to any form of radiant energy, such as heat, light, or x-rays. Radioactive sources of radiant energy, such as x-rays or isotopes of iodine or cobalt, are used diagnostically to examine internal body structures. The same or similar sources of radioactivity in larger amounts are used to destroy microorganisms or tissue cells that have become cancerous. Infrared or ultraviolet light may be used to produce heat in body tissues for pain relief or to treat acne, psoriasis, or other skin ailments. Ultraviolet light is also used to identify certain bacteria and toxic molds. See also radiation sickness, radioactivity, ultraviolet. irradiate, v.

irradiation

 
1. Radiation therapy, see there.
2. Blood irradiation, see there.

ir·ra·di·a·tion

(ir-rādē-āshŭn)
1. The subjective enlargement of a bright object seen against a dark background.
2. Exposure to the action of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., heat, light, x-rays).
3. The spreading of nervous impulses from one area in the brain or cord, or from a tract, to another tract.
See also: radiation
4. A process of preparation in which food is exposed to low doses of radiation to decrease bacteria and improve shelf life.
[L. ir-radio,(in-r), pp. -radi-atus, to beam forth]

irradiation

Exposure to any form of ionizing or other radiation either for purposes of treatment, as in radiotherapy, or to sterilize medical or surgical material and instruments.

irradiation

exposure to radiant energy for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes

irradiation

1. Application of electromagnetic radiations to an object. 2. A phenomenon in which a bright area against a black background appears larger than a darker area of equal size against the same background. Syn. Helmholtz illusion.

ir·ra·di·a·tion

(ir-rādē-āshŭn)
1. The subjective enlargement of a bright object seen against a dark background.
2. Exposure to the action of electromagnetic radiation.
[L. ir-radio, (in-r), pp. -radi-atus, to beam forth]

irradiation (irā´dēā´shən),

n 1. the exposure of material to roentgen or other radiation. (One speaks of
radiation therapy but not of
irradiation of the patient.) 2. the exposure to radiation.

irradiation

exposure to radiant energy (heat, x-rays, etc.) for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. See also radiation (3).
Irradiation of certain foods, including milk, kills harmful bacteria and prevents spoilage. X-ray photography is used in industrial research and in diagnosis of disorders within the body.

irradiation teratogen
irradiation at the time of organogenesis which is capable of causing congenital defects such as ankylosis of limb joints and cleft palate.
References in periodicals archive ?
The recipient was pre-treated with total body irradiation and the kidney functioned for several years.
This led to a greatly accelerated normalization of bone marrow cellularity and peripheral blood CD34+ cells following total body irradiation.
Rhesus macaques exposed to 400 cGy of total body irradiation (TBI) experience a significant number of days of severe neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.
City of Hope performs over 2000 total body irradiation treatments per year in preparation for bone marrow transplantation, which is one of the reasons Jeffrey Wong, MD, chair, Division of Radiation Oncology, became interested in TomoTherapy.
The request was specifically targeted at therapies that could protect neutrophils and platelets from the damaging effects of radiation injury when given shortly after exposure to total body irradiation (TBI).
Most adverse events were attributable to the underlying malignancy, cytotoxic chemotherapy, or total body irradiation and occurred at similar rates in patients who received palifermin or placebo.
The CR and EFS rates observed in this study are similar to those in other published transplantation regimens, including the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome 94 (IFM94) double transplantation regimen using total body irradiation, presented in the plenary session of this ASH annual meeting," said Dr.
Up to 60 patients will be enrolled in the trial, each of whom is to receive chemotherapy with or without total body irradiation in preparation for either allogeneic or autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Treatment in the phase I/II trial consisted of escalating doses in groups of patients receiving a single treatment of STR combined with one of two different doses of melphalan chemotherapy or melphalan chemotherapy plus total body irradiation.
Treatment consisted of escalating doses of STR in combination with chemotherapy or chemotherapy plus total body irradiation.
Currently, for cancer patients who are in need of a bone marrow transplant, the conventional preparation is total body irradiation as well as chemotherapy.