Unlike other SERMs (including the breast cancer drugs tamoxifen and toremifene
), ospemifene exerts a strong, nearly full estrogen agonist effect (thereby mimicking estrogen effects) in the vaginal epithelium, making it well suited for the treatment of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women.
She had been treated with toremifene
citrate, 40 mg/day.
Seppala, "Effect of the molecular weight of poly ([epsilon]-caprolactone-co-DL-lactide) on toremifene
citrate release from copolymer/silica xerogel composites," International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol.
These included numbers and percentages of patients receiving cancer-directed treatments, detailed usage patterns for chemotherapy and targeted therapy (i.e., crizotinib, everolimus, imatinib, pazopanib, sirolimus, sorafenib, sunitinib, tamoxifen, and toremifene
), and numbers and percentages of patients receiving supportive care during each line of systemic therapy and after stopping active treatment.
Tonetti et al., "Antiestrogenic and DNA damaging effects induced by tamoxifen and toremifene
metabolites," Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol.
The members of the triphenylethylene class of SERMs include tamoxifen, clomiphene, toremifene
, and GW5407, which are used primarily for the treatment/ prevention of breast cancer.
Multiple clinical trials have investigated the use of a variety of pharmacologic agents and nonpharmacologic supplements, such as 5-[alpha] reductase inhibitors, 3,3'-diindolylmethane, selenium, soy compounds, toremifene
citrate, green tea catechins, and lycopenes, among others, but none of these agents has emerged as particularly promising for effective chemoprevention of prostate cancer (as reviewed in DeMarzo et al (3)), although some trials are still ongoing to date.
Compartmentalized uterotrophic effects of tamoxifen, toremifene
, and estradiol in the ovariectomized Wistar (Han) rat.
Carvedilol, diclofenac, etodolac, haloperidol, hydrocortisone, ipriflavone, theophylline, and toremifene
citrate were purchased from TCI (Tokyo Chemical Industry Co.
Peters, "Erratum: Differential effects of toremifene
on doxorubicin, vinblastine and Tc-99m-sestamibi in p-glycoprotein-expressing breast and head and neck cancer cell lines," Acta Oncologica, vol.
Ospemifene is an estrogen receptor agonist/antagonist, also known as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), from the same chemical class (triphenylethylenes) as tamoxifen and toremifene
, both of which are used in the treatment of breast cancer.
In a new research, scientists said the painkiller ibuprofen and the chemotherapy drug toremifene
can "disable" the Ebola virus.