, dalcetrapib and evacetrapib, have been abandoned in the trial stage owing to either adverse events or lack of cardiovascular benefit, with only anacetrapib still undergoing further evaluation.
Eriksson et al., "Effects of torcetrapib
in patients at high risk for coronary events," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol.
In the case of torcetrapib
, the first CETP inhibitor tested in a large-scale clinical Investigation of Lipid Level Management to Understand its Impact in Atherosclerotic Events (ILLUMINATE) trial, the clinical trial was terminated early because of off-target adverse events (increased serum aldosterone and blood pressure levels) (50).
Pharmaceutical CETP inhibitors such as Torcetrapib
 and Dalcetrapib  have been shown to raise HDL-C levels effectively, but research into their clinical efficacy was unfortunately terminated due to off-target effect or lack of clinical benefit.
The first CETP inhibitor, torcetrapib
, proved unsuccessful because it increased levels of aldosterone, a hormone that increases blood pressure.
and carotid intima-media thickness in mixed dyslipidaemia (RADIANCE 2 study): A randomised, double-blind trial.
and atorvastatin - should marketing drive the research agenda?
Pfizer, for example, spent a reported $800 million on its cholesterol-lowering drug, torcetrapib
, before pulling it from phase III clinical trials in 2006.
stopped a late-stage study of its CETP inhibitor, torcetrapib
, in late 2006, when the drag--despite raising good cholesterol levels as intended--was found to increase the risk of death and heart problems in a clinical trial.
Nicholls et al., "Effect of torcetrapib
on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol.
Revkin, "Efficacy and safety of torcetrapib
, a novel cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor, in individuals with below-average high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels," Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol.
A CETP inhibitor that raises HDL cholesterol while reducing the LDL variety evacetrapib could be a huge seller for Lilly, or it could meet the same fate as Pfizer's torcetrapib
and Roche's dalcetrapib.