There was an interval of unconsciousness, and when I revived I felt a strangling clutch upon my throat--felt my arms feebly beating against something that bore me backward--felt my tongue thrusting
itself from between my teeth!
Data excluded related to subjects with a history of craniofacial and dental anomalies, extraction or previous orthodontic treatment, pathology or trauma in the region of interest, and with habits such as thumb-sucking or tongue thrusting
. The data was divided into three study groups on the basis of sagittal skeletal pattern as Class I: A point, nasion, B point (ANB) angle 0o-4o; Class II: ANB angle>4o; Class III: ANB angle5mm, secondary rugae 3-5 mm and fragmentary0.05).
Oral habits such as thumb sucking, mouth breathing and tongue thrusting
tend to cause dental malocclusion by imbalance in the forces acting on the teeth and if left untreated over a longer period of time will lead to abnormal positioning of the upper and lower jaw.
In addition to self-injurious behaviors such as hitting with bare hands, banging their heads on walls and furniture, and pricking or pinching;3 oral habits including bruxism, tongue thrusting
, lip biting, and pica (eating objects and substances such as gravel, or pens) have been reported among children with ASD.4 These habits may contribute to significant dental problems such as soft tissue injury, tooth loss, tooth wear, increased overjet, anterior open bite, and posterior crossbite.5 Furthermore, these habits are associated with skeletal and dentoalveolar deformation.
Anterior open bite (AOB) is an absence of vertical overlapping between upper and lower anterior teeth when the teeth are in centric occlusion.1 There are various causes of this malocclusion, including thumb sucking, tongue thrusting
, temporal joint involvement, and amelogenesis imperfacta.2,3 Link between cervical vertebral column morphology and craniofacial posture in cause of AOB is already proven.4 Different treatment methods to correct AOB have been reported.5-10
As early as six years onwards, orthodontic treatment can be initiated with removable appliances such as habit breaking appliances to correct deleterious oral habits such as thumb/finger sucking, lip/nail biting, mouth breathing, tongue thrusting
A tongue tied, excessive tongue thrusting
, abnormal orbicularis oris muscle tone or an abnormal gag reflex (vomiting) constitute an obstacle for physiological development of sucking reflex.
Thumb sucking, tongue thrusting
and lower lip biting habits causes the outward pressure on the dentition leading to flaring of anterior teeth, which leads to midline diastema.
When compared to the control group, children with clefts presented significant association with tongue thrusting
at rest, in speech and in swallowing, tongue sucking, object sucking and interposition, lip sucking, cheek sucking, and nail biting.
Class II malocclusion with anterior open bite may be due to abnormal muscle and tongue movements (tongue thrusting