Secondly, the redox sensitive kinases which contain cysteine motifs i.e., thioredoxin
, nuclear signaling factors such as Ref-1 and transcription factors i.e., AP-1, NF-KB, Nfr-1, Egr-1, all are plying critical role for DNA synthesis, and cell growth.
Inhibition of certain thiol-containing enzymes (Alcohol dehydrogenase, thioredoxin
reductase, RNA polymerase) in the microorganisms by the rapid reaction of thiosulfinates with thiol groups is supposed to be the main mechanism involved in the antibiotic effect.
(Trx), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and thioredoxin
reductase (TrxR) comprise a thioredoxin
system which exists in nearly all living cells (Arner and Holmgren 2006).
Effect of thioredoxin
reductase 1 on glucocorticoid receptor activity in human outer root sheath cells.
The selenium-containing enzyme thioredoxin
reductase 1 (TrxR1) can be used to support the growth of various cells and to protect them from harmful forms of oxygen radicals, known as oxidative stress.
Early IFN-[alpha] responses in BMM were also associated with the downregulation of genes associated with the antioxidant response (superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC), NAD kinase (NADK), and thioredoxin
reductase 1 and 3 (TXNRD1, TXNRD3)) and the upregulation of thioredoxin
interacting protein (TXNIP), which inhibits the antioxidant activity of thioredoxin
Moretto et al., "Potent anti-HPV immune responses induced by tandem repeats of the HPV16 L2 (20-38) peptide displayed on bacterial thioredoxin
," Vaccine, vol.
reductase-1 (TrxR-1) activity was determined at 412 nm .
The selected receptors used for the docking studies are carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II), cathepsins B (Cat B) , two different DNAs (DNA-1  and DNA-2), DNA gyrase (Gyrase) , histone deacetylase7 (HDAC7) , histone protein in the nucleosome core particle (HIS) , BRAF kinase (Kinase) , recombinant human albumin (rHA) , ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) , topoisomerase II (Top II) , thioredoxin
reductase (TrxR) , and thymidylate synthase (TS) .
Veramendi, "Increased bioethanol production from commercial tobacco cultivars overexpressing thioredoxin
f grown under field conditions," Molecular Breeding, vol.
(TRX) is a multifunctional protein with redox activity, which can act as a neutralizing agent by combining ROS, protecting cells from oxidative stress.
The size-separated proteins were probed with antibodies specific for SERPINA1 at 1:125 dilution (Novus NBP1-90309, Novus Biologics, Littleton, CO) and the housekeeper Thioredoxin
at 1:1000 (CST 2429, Cell Signaling Technologies Inc., Danvers, MA), visualized using labelled rabbit secondary antibodies and quantitated using the manufacturers' software.