amount and activity in hamster brown fat mitochondria: effect of cold acclimation.
This is consistent with the high levels of mitochondria in BAT, which uniquely express high levels of the inner mitochondrial membrane protein, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), also known as thermogenin
Unlike white fat in which fatty acids are metabolized to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate, brown fat, owing to the presence of abundant mitochondria and uncoupling protein-1 (thermogenin
), metabolizes these in the form of heat.
Kawada, et al., "Intake of Sweeteners and Pungent Ingredients Increases the Thermogenin
Content in Brown Adipose Tissue of Rats," J.
Two enzymes, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK-4) and pancreatic lipase (PL), enable hibernation to occur by producing the alternative heat source thermogenin
, and by slowing down metabolism and shifting the way fats are used.
(1999) reported that green tea and caffeine have thermogenin
properties that promote fat oxidation and play a role in the control of body composition, probably through sympathetic activation of thermogenesis that could reduce obesity.
In vivo and in vivo induction of brown adipocyte uncoupling protein (thermogenin
) by retinoic acid.