Table 1 Concentrations of compounds at the thermodynamic equilibrium
of the Si-O-H-C-N system in the temperature range from 1 to 70[degrees]C Compound [H.sub.4]Si[O.sub.4] [H.sub.2]Si [O.sub.4.sup.-2] Concentration, mol/l 2.85E-05 1.28E-13 Compound [H.sub.3]Si [H.sub.3]Si [O.sub.3.sup.+] [O.sub.4.sup.-] Concentration, mol/l 3.24E-10 8.80E-09 Compound His[O.sub.3.sup.-] Si[O.sub.2.sup.*] Concentration, mol/l 1.35E-08 9.52E-06 Compound Si[O.sub.2] Concentration, mol/l 2.00E-01 Table 2 The ranges of variations of the parameters of the system S-O-H-C-N, in which a solid Si[O.sub.2] phase is formed Parameter Concentration Concentration Concentration Si[(O[C.sub.2] [H.sub.2]O N[H.sub.4]OH [H.sub.5]).sub.4] Value range 0 ...
Ramaswamy, "Modeling biomass gasification using thermodynamic equilibrium
approach," Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol.
On the correction to Saha's formula for small deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium
It is because the measurements were misinterpreted using the erroneous assumption that soil samples reach thermodynamic equilibrium
in pressure cell apparatus.
through the densification that continues as a polymer approaches its thermodynamic equilibrium
below the glass transition temperature, [T.sub.g].
If the liquid phase already exists (in stable thermodynamic equilibrium
) between the two solid bodies, and the distance H is steadily increased (as in the experiments reported in Maeda et al., 2003), the width of the liquid bridge will steadily decrease (as the stable equilibrium configuration corresponds to smaller values of D : see Figures 2 and 4), until, at some critical value of H, the bridge will break (as the existence of the liquid phase becomes energetically unfavourable).
However, for the present work we decided just to consider the thermodynamic equilibrium
and neglect the effect of other phenomena.
It then shows how the method of fluctuating hydrodynamics can be extended to deal with hydrodynamic fluctuations in fluids that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium
. While fluctuations in equilibrium fluids are generally short ranged unless the system is close to a critical point, fluctuations in nonequilibrium fluids are always spatially long ranged.
The researchers also discovered that the diamond/BC8/ liquid triple point (the temperature and pressure at which these three phases coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium
) is at a lower pressure than previously thought (BC8 denotes a solid phase of carbon into which diamond transforms above 12 megabar (1.2 TPa)at zero temperature.
Under conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium
, the quantitative methods of analysis we describe below are applicable.