Por su parte, Karasek & Theorell
(1990) expresan que estas condiciones de trabajo tienen efectos tanto en el desempeno como en la salud del trabajador.
Furthermore, negative emotions have been associated with reactions of stress, loss of self-esteem, and feelings of guilt that occasionally develop into burnout syndrome and various diseases (Theorell
, 2003; Todaro, Shen, Niaura, Spiro, & Ward, 2003).
Frequency of hypoglycemic episodes was not related to fear of hypoglycemia (Irvine, Cox, & Gonder- Frederick, 1992; Ying & Man 1998), whereas fear was positively related to frequency of hypoglycemic episodes that required hospitalization (Ying & Man, 1998), and to anxiety level (Wredling, Theorell
, Roll, Lins, & Adamson, 1992), and negatively related to happiness in adults prone to recurrent severe episodes of hypoglycemia (Wredling et al., 1992).
Rather, the experience of stress and the development of distress may be better understood via the Demand-Control-Support model (DCS; Karasek & Theorell
When workers are constrained by low control, the arousal cannot be appropriately channeled into a coping response, resulting in an even greater physiological reaction which persists for a longer time (Karasek & Theorell
, and the editor of the book, author chapters in this collection.
Empirical studies of the relationship between psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms and injury suggest many potential risk factors, including low decision latitude at work (Bernard, Sauter, Fine, Petersen, & Hales, 1994; Faucett & Rempel, 1994), lack of social support (Bernard et al., 1994; Faucett & Rempel, 1994; Toomingas, Theorell
, Michelsen, & Nordemar, 1997), high work pace (Houtman, Bongers, Smulders, & Kompier, 1994), low intellectual discretion (Houtman et al., 1994), high psychological demands (Toomingas et al., 1997), high job strain (Toomingas et al., 1997), and increased time or job pressures (Bernard et al., 1994).
(15) Ela foi desenvolvida por Thores Theorell
em 1988 e contem 17 itens, sendo 5 sobre demandas, 6 sobre controle e 6 sobre apoio social (15).
According to Karasek and Theorell
(19), these intervals promote freedom of action and ease tensions during the workday.
[17.] Kuper H., Adami H.O., Theorell
T., Weiderpass E.: The socioeconomic gradient in the incidence of stroke: A prospective study in middle-aged women in Sweden.
Job demands were measured using a 4-item index concerning work intensity, pressure, conflicting demands and emotions, based on work by Karasek and Theorell