The following keywords were used in all database searches: "antidepressants", "traumatic brain injury", "depressive disorders", "depression", "brain trauma", "brain injury", "head trauma", "head injury", "selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors", "serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors", "serotonin modulators and stimulators", "serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors", "norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors", "tricyclic antidepressants", "tetracyclic antidepressants
", and "monoamine oxidase inhibitors".
TdP has been reported in some cases in association with the use of newer antipsychotic medication (especially quetiapine and amilsulpride), the majority of tri and tetracyclic antidepressants
and selective inhibitors of serotonin recapturing (citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine and venlafaxine).
The global anxiety disorders and depression treatment market segmentation is based on drug class (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake, atypical antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, tetracyclic antidepressants
, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, anticonvulsants).
The antidepressants currently prescribed for the treatment of MDD comprise eight main classes: The monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), serotonin modulators (SM), noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and tetracyclic antidepressants
Sexual side effects are most often associated with serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSR1s), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants
Randomized placebo-controlled trials with tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants
(TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were analyzed.
Tricylcic and tetracyclic antidepressants
(TCAs) also can result in dryness in the mouth and nasal mucosa and also contribute to gastroesophageal reflux.
For example, decreased libido has been reported in studies examining the sexual side effects of tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants
, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and SSRIs.
John's wort for one to three months with subjects who received placebo or antidepressant therapy with medications such as tricyclic or tetracyclic antidepressants
and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for the same period.
Amitriptyline and other tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants
moderately improve pain control for patients with chronic back pain.