testicular self-examination

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Testicular Self-Examination



A testicular self-examination (TSE) is the procedure by which a man checks the appearance and consistency of his testes.


Most testicular cancers are first noticed by the man himself. Men should do a TSE every month to find out if the testes contain any suspicious lumps or other irregularities, which could be signs of cancer or infection.




A TSE should take place during a warm shower or bath, when the skin is warm, wet, and soapy. The man needs to step out of the tub so that he is in front of a mirror. The heat from the tub or shower will relax the scrotum (sac containing the testes) and the skin will be softer and thinner, making it easier to feel a lump. It is important that the exam be done very gently.
The man should stand facing his mirror and look for swelling on the scrotum. Using both hands, the scrotum should be gently lifted so that the area underneath can be checked.
The next step is examination by hand. The index and middle fingers should be placed under each testicle, with the thumbs on top. The testes should be examined one at a time. The man should roll each testicle between his fingers and thumbs. He should feel for lumps of any size (even as small as a pea) particularly on the front or side of each testicle. He should also look for soreness or irregularities. Next, the epididymis and vas deferens, located on the top and back of the testes, should be felt. This area feels like a cord, and should not be tender.

Normal results

It is normal for one testicle to be larger than the other is, and for them to hang at different levels; but the size should stay the same from one month to the next. The testes should be free from lumps, pain, irregularities and swelling.

Abnormal results

A TSE is considered abnormal if any swelling, tenderness, lumps, or irregularities are found. Hard, unmoving lumps are abnormal, even if they are painless. A lump could be a sign of an infection or a cancerous tumor. A change in testicle size from one month to the next is also abnormal. A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum is another abnormal sign. If any abnormality is found, a man is encouraged to check with his doctor as soon as possible because testicular cancer is highly curable if found early.



Hainsworth, John D., and F. Anthony Greco. "Testis." In Cancer Treatment, edited by Charles M. Haskell, 5th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2001.
Seidel, Henry M., et al. Mosby's Guide to Physical Examination. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, Inc., 1999.


"Questions and Answers About Testicular Cancer." National Cancer Institute. February 2000. http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/6_34.htm.

Key terms

Epididymis — A tube in the back of the testes that transports sperm.
Scrotum — The pouch containing the testes.
Testes — Egg-shaped male gonads located in the scrotum. Testes is the plural form of testis, which is a testicle.
Vas deferens — A tube that is a continuation of the epididymis. This tube transports sperm from the testis to the prostatic urethra.

testicular self-examination (TSE)

a procedure recommended by the National Institutes of Health for detecting tumors or other abnormalities in the male testes. The TSE is conducted in four simple steps, starting by standing in front of a mirror and looking for any swelling on the skin of the scrotum. One testicle may appear larger than the other, and one may hang lower, which is usually normal. Next, each testicle is examined with both hands, placing the fingers under the testicle while the thumbs are placed on top. The testicle is then rolled gently between the thumbs and fingers. In the next step the epididymis, a normal cordlike structure on the top and back of each testicle, should be found. A small pea-sized lump is felt for on the front or side of a testicle. The lump is usually painless. TSE should be performed once a month, usually after a warm bath or shower because the heat causes scrotal skin to relax, thereby increasing the chances of detecting any tissue abnormality. Testicular cancer almost always occurs in only one testicle. It is highly curable when detected at an early stage.
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Testicular self-examination

tes·tic·u·lar self-ex·am·i·na·tion

(TSE) (tes-tik'yū-lăr self'eg-zam'i-nā'shŭn)
Procedure for detecting tumors and other abnormalities in the testes.

testicular self-examination

A technique that enables a man to detect changes in the size and shape of his testicles and evaluate any tenderness. Each testicle is examined separately and in comparison with the other. The best time to perform the test is just after a warm bath or shower when the scrotal tissue is relaxed. The man places his thumbs on the anterior surface of the testicle, supporting it with the index and middle fingers of both hands. Each testicle is gently rolled between the fingers and thumbs and carefully felt for lumps, hardness, or thickening, esp. as compared with the other testicle. The epididymis is a soft, slightly tender, tubelike body behind the testicle. Abnormal findings should be reported immediately to a health care professional.
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Using testicular models, chapter members provided teaching on how to properly perform a testicular self exam.

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