The condition must be differentiated from other ocular disorders that may have common clinical features, for example, commotion retina, Terson's syndrome
, shaken baby syndrome, and Valsalva retinopathy .
It is associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, retinal artery macro aneurysm, trauma,1 age-related maculopathy, hematological disorders such as leukemia and chemotherapy induced pancytopenia, following laser in situ keratomileusis because of rapid release of the microkeratotome vacum pressure or after retinal vascular rupture associated with physical exertion (valsalva retinopathy), Terson's syndrome
, Purtscher's syndrome.2 Visual acuity is often profoundly reduced but spontaneous clearance usually occurs within few months.3 Nd: yag laser (neodymium yag laser) is commonly used for a variety of anterior segment procedures particularly iridotomy and posterior capsulotomy.
In the group of patients aged more than one year up to 5 years, spontaneously regressed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), retinoblastoma (RB), and Terson's syndrome were the most common causes (Figure 1(b)).
Two eyes with Terson's syndrome had inoperable RD, one eye with persistent fetal vasculature had inoperable TRD, one eye with FEVR had recurrent RD, one eye with FRAM had inoperable TRD, two eyes with neonatal meningitis had inoperable RD, one eye with Coats disease had inoperable RD, one eye with Marfan syndrome had recurrent RD, one eye with nanophthalmos had inoperable RD, and one eye with Stickler syndrome had inoperable RD.
Terson's syndrome in subarachnoid hemorrhage and severe brain injury accompanied by acutely raised intracranial pressure.
A systematic review of Terson's syndrome: frequency and prognosis after subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Bilateral subretinal haemorrhage with Terson's syndrome. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol.
Terson's syndrome in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective study in 60 consecutive patients.
Infrequently, sub-hyaloid (pre-retinal) haemorrhage with or without vitreous haemorrhage may occur, which is referred to as Terson's syndrome
base their opinion, retinal hemorrhages, has long been known to be associated with raised intracranial pressure from any cause, (4) as in Terson's syndrome
(5) and following vitamin C or vitamin K deficiency.
Although sub-ILM hemorrhages have been most commonly associated with Valsalva retinopathy and Terson's syndrome
, retinal macroaneurysms may also cause sub-ILM hemorrhages .