For laparoscopy (alas, not for vaginal surgery) there is evidence that the meaningful learning curve could be shortened--and eventually eliminated--with the help of 2 aspects of computer-assisted surgery that benefit surgeons in complementing ways: teleoperators
and virtual reality simulators (figure 1).
BRANCH, AEC/NASA SPACE NUCLEAR SYSTEMS OFFICE, WASHINGTON, D.
Variable force and visual feedback effects on teleoperator
performance with varying force and visual feedback.
The use of this technology could allow for near-optimal human teleoperator
performance under conditions in which misalignments are difficult or impossible to avoid.
developers thought that the best performance could be achieved by providing users with a manipulator that was similar in shape (anthropomorphic) to human arms and featured output movements easily mapped onto controller inputs (spatial correspondence).
This viewing condition is important because several applications such as piloting a plane, submarine operations, and teleoperator
manipulation of remote objects - may result in the use of displays in which computer-generated objects are located both above and below the desired eyepoint location.
and virtual environments 7, no.
Azuma, "A survey of augmented reality," Presence: Teleoperators
and virtual environments, vol.
Tenders are invited for Service of teleoperators
for the Coordinating Center of Emergencies and Sanitary Emergencies for the National Institute of Sanitary Management of Melilla