Tartrate crystal inhibitors: These include mannoproteins extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (brand names Mannostab and Claristar) and carboxymethyl-modified vegetal-origin cellulose polymers commonly known as CMC (brand name Celstab).
Lhote noted that its use has grown to the point that it is the only way Domaine Chandon tartrate stabilizes its wines.
Specifically, it is a technique used for reducing tartaric and malic acids in approximately equal parts by precipitating them in their double-salt form using a special formulation consisting mainly of calcium carbonate (chalk) and a small percentage of calcium tartrate malate as a seeding aid.
50 and therefore, tartaric acid which has a first dissociation value in this range will dissociate into its bitartrate and tartrate ions.
Here the apparent ability of the organic acids to compete with the aluminon reagent for Al was citrate [is greater than] oxalate [is greater than] tartrate [is greater than] malonate [is greater than] malate at both 1:1 and 2:1 organic:Al ratios.
Results found for 25 [micro]M Al by use of the PCV method are very different from those predicted from stability constants, with only citrate and tartrate showing a significant reduction in [Al.
Ion exchange--cation exchange (sodium or hydrogen ion exchanges for potassium and other wine cations), anion exchange (organic anions or hydroxide for tartrate
ions) or a combination of anion and cation exchange.
According to Jose Santos, president of Enartis Vinquiry, it was the staggering electrical bills that led the producers of Champagne to launch the research that developed carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) products, one of the new classes of tartrate
Stabilizing commercial wines to prevent tartrate
precipitation (which is harmless, but cosmetically unappealing) takes many forms, most of them involving electricity and/or refrigeration and/or lots of water.
The blasting removes any visible tartrate
crystals and wine residues.
instability in wine comes from two salts of bitartrate: potassium (KHT) and calcium (CaHT).
Tiburzi points out that tartrate
crystal control is especially important for sparkling wines, because it is hard-edged surfaces--bottle imperfections, intentional imperfections in crystal glassware, or potassium bitartrate crystals--that serve as the launching pads for those wonderful streams of bubbles.