The 10 species identified by the ParoCheck10[R] microarray detection system were as follows: The red complex: Porphyromonasgingivalis, Tannerella
forsythia and Treponema denticola; the orange complex: Campylobacter rectus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra and Prevotella intermedia; the green complex: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Eikenella corrodens; the blue complex: Actinomyces viscosus (12).
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) (formerly Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) are the major pathogenic bacteria species in the etiology of periodontal diseases, whereas the normal oral flora related to the disease are Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Tannerella
forsythia (Tf) and Treponema denticola (Td) (7-9).
Microorganisms inhabiting the oral cavity, such as Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides loescheii, Enterobacteriaceae, Tannerella
forsythensis, Centipeda periodontii, Eikenella corrodens, and Fusobacterium nucleatum,11 interact with these sulfur-containing substances, and so produce volatile sulfide compounds (VSC), especially hydrogen sulfide (H S), methyl mercaptan (CH SH), and dimethylsulfide [(CH3)2S].12 These VSC are considered as the main sources of intra-oral OM.8
ICG displayed a strong adhesion to bacterial membranes (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Tannerella
forsythia, Camphylobacter recta, Eikenella corrodens and Treponema denticola) and demonstrated bactericidal effect when activated by a diode laser (19-21).
In addition, an improved colonization of Tannerella
forsythia in subgingival biofilm has been described in obese subjects (68).
The red complex, which includes Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella
forsythia (formerly Bacteroides forsythus), encompasses the most important pathogens in adult periodontal disease.
Plaque samples from smokers were found to contain higher proportion of bacteria responsible for causing periodontitis, such as Peptostreptococcus micros, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Campylobacter rectus and Tannerella
Studies on polymerase chain reaction analysis for the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella
forsythia, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescen, showed that the elastomeric rings were associated with a higher score for plaque index and bleeding than steel ligatures and concluded that elastomeric rings promoted significant retention of the biofilm with clinical alterations on the plaque index and favored the peridontopathogens with a detrimental effect for the gingival conditions (39).
Salivary stress parameters of 8-OHdG are correlated with periodontal disease and Porphyromonas gingivalis and its genotypes fimA II and Ib, Treponema denticola, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Tannerella
Certain types of bacteria, such as Tannerella
spp., are associated with oral infections and periodontal disease.
Chronic periodontitis is strongly associated with the presence of Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in subgingival plaque, in particular, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella
forsythia, and Treponema denticola.
Some members of the gram-negative community are strict anaerobes, including Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Tannerella