Tamiflu


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oseltamivir phosphate

Tamiflu

Pharmacologic class: Viral neuro-aminidase inhibitor

Therapeutic class: Antiviral

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Inhibits influenza virus neuraminidase, altering viral particle aggregation and decreasing viral release from infected cells

Availability

Capsules: 30 mg, 45 mg, 75 mg

Powder for oral suspension: 12 mg/ml

Indications and dosages

To prevent influenza type A

Adults and children older than age 13: 75 mg P.O. daily for 10 days, starting within 2 days of exposure; 75 mg P.O. daily during community outbreak of influenza for up to 6 weeks

Children ages 1 and older weighing more than 40 kg (88 lb): 75 mg P.O. daily for 10 days, starting within 2 days of exposure; continue dosing during community outbreak of influenza for up to 6 weeks

Children ages 1 and older weighing more than 23 kg up to 40 kg (more than 51 lb up to 88 lb): 60 mg P.O. daily for 10 days, starting within 2 days of exposure; continue dosing during community outbreak of influenza for up to 6 weeks

Children ages 1 and older weighing more than 15 kg up to 23 kg (33 lb up to 51 lb): 45 mg P.O. daily for 10 days, starting within 2 days of exposure; continue dosing during community outbreak of influenza for up to 6 weeks

Children ages 1 and older weighing 15 kg (33 lb) or less: 30 mg P.O. daily for 10 days, starting within 2 days of exposure; continue dosing during community outbreak of influenza for up to 6 weeks

Treatment of influenza type A

Adults and children older than age 13: 75 mg P.O. b.i.d. for 5 days, starting within 2 days of symptom onset

Children ages 1 and older who weigh more than 40 kg (88 lb): 75 mg P.O. b.i.d. for 5 days, starting within 2 days of symptom onset

Children ages 1 and older who weigh more than 23 kg and up to 40 kg (51 to 88 lb): 60 mg P.O. b.i.d. for 5 days, starting within 2 days of symptom onset

Children ages 1 year and older who weigh more than 15 kg and up to 23 kg (33 to 51 lb): 45 mg P.O. b.i.d. for 5 days, starting within 2 days of symptom onset

Children ages 1 and older who weigh less than 15 kg (33 lb): 30 mg P.O. b.i.d. for 5 days, starting within 2 days of symptom onset

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or its components

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• chronic cardiac or renal disease, respiratory disorders

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children younger than age 1 (safety and efficacy not established).

Administration

• For flu treatment, give first dose at onset of symptoms. For flu prevention, give within 2 days of exposure.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, dizziness, fatigue, insomnia, unusual behavior, confusion

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

Respiratory: cough, bronchitis

Skin: epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Other: hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylaxis)

Interactions

None significant

Patient monitoring

Monitor patient closely for allergic reaction or severe rash; discontinue drug immediately if these occur.

• Closely monitor patient for unusual behavior or confusion.

• Monitor respiratory status. Watch for signs and symptoms of secondary infection.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to take as soon as flu symptoms occur and to complete entire course of therapy.

• Advise patient to take with food or milk to minimize GI irritation.

• Tell patient to prepare oral solution by adding water to powder and shaking well.

Instruct patient or caregiver to discontinue drug and seek immediate medical attention if rash or swelling of lips, face, or throat occurs

• Instruct patient or caregiver to report change in behavior.

• Caution patient not to share drug with others, even if they have similar symptoms.

• Instruct patient to consult prescriber before taking other drugs.

• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Tamiflu

(tăm′ə-flo͞o′)
A trademark for the phosphate form of the drug oseltamivir.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

oseltamivir

An antiviral ingested as a prodrug, which is used to manage influenza A or B. A Cochrane review published in 2009 found no clear benefit for oseltamivir if taken after the first 24 hours.
 
Adverse events
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and headache.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

Tamiflu®

Oseltamivir Infectious disease An oral neuraminidase inhibitor used for influenza A and B
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Tamiflu

A brand name for OSELTAMIVIR.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Tamiflu, which is intended to prevent and treat flu, is currently sold in the US by Genetech - part of the Roche group.
Tamiflu is an antiviral medication prescribed to prevent the symptoms of influenza A and influenza B within 48 hours of onset of symptoms. (http://www.center4research.org/tamiflu-not-tamiflu/) Studies argue Tamiflu is effective on people diagnosed with flu and is less effective on those experiencing flu like symptoms.
Flavors are available for both commercially prepared Tamiflu and the compounded version, which is commonly used when shortages of Tamiflu liquid arise.
But few have questioned the use of Tamiflu in conjunction with the flu shot.
Describing how the UK Government had to write-off millions of pounds' worth of Tamiflu stocks, the MPs write: "The Department wrote off PS74m of Tamiflu as a result of poor record-keeping by the NHS on how the medicine had been stored during the 2009 influenza pandemic.
While just 2 per cent of swine flu strains around the world are resistant to Tamiflu, the Australian research found mutations in all strains of the swine flu that suggest they might be prone to develop resistance.
Tamiflu is now the only approved prescription oral antiviral medicine to treat infants from two weeks old and adults.
They found Tamiflu "did not reduce influenza-related lower respiratory tract complications" but did induce nausea.
"And with increasing viral resistance to Tamiflu the need for alternatives has never been greater."
The agency purchased the supposed generic Tamiflu from an online pharmacy that is no longer operational, but the fake drug is still being sold through other Internet sites and without a prescription.
An inquest was told she had been suf-f fering from breathing difficulties and vomiting and had been taking anti-flu drug Tamiflu after suffering swine flu symptoms.
It was another 36 hours before tests confirmed the student had contracted the H1N1 virus and she was started on Tamiflu, the inquest at Leicester Town Hall heard.