The characterization of this syndrome has been a moving target; it appears in the DSM 5 under "Other Specified Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders" as well as under the "Glossary of Cultural Concepts of Disease," as a variant of Taijin Kyofusho
, a disease characterized by "anxiety about and avoidance of interpersonal situations, due to the thought, feeling, or conviction that one's appearance and actions in social interactions are inadequate or offensive to others." .
Harada, "Cultural factors in social anxiety: a comparison of social phobia symptoms and Taijin Kyofusho
," Journal of Anxiety Disorders, vol.
Cultural factors in social anxiety: A comparison of social phobia symptoms and Taijin Kyofusho
. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11, 157-177.
In Japan, two culture-bound disorders, "taijin kyofusho
" and "hikikomori," have seized the interest of researchers and professionals due to their prevalence in Japanese society.
Many hikikomori experience dissociative identities, anthropophobia--fear of fellow humans (taijin kyofusho
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII])--and emotional numbness (Hattori 2006, 186).
: Social Anxiety.A Culture-Bound Syndrome.
Some individuals in Asian cultures, especially Japan, experience "taijin kyofusho
," which appears to be an Eastern variant of social phobia and is characterized by a fear of offending others, most typically by one's behavior, appearance, or body odor.
The condition is briefly mentioned in the text on delusion disorder, somatic subtype and social phobia (given that some patients with taijin kyofusho
(a condition related to social phobia) may suffer from concerns that their body odour is offensive).
For example, taijin kyofusho
, a culturally-bound phobia found in Japan, is also characterized by socially anxious and avoidant behaviors; however, this disorder is not characterized by an intense fear of negative evaluation.
Diclaudio, whose credits include toiling for years as a medical editor, strongly denies any claim to this being a serious text and proves it over and over in his hilarious narratives and descriptions of such sad cases as "Taijin Kyofusho
," which includes fear of one's own body odor; scrupulosity, which includes obsessive-compulsive religiousness intended to eradicate sin; shared psychotic disorder, in which things get a little too friendly; and pica, in which munching on garbage or worse figures prominently.
"An example of a culture-bound syndrome is taijin kyofusho
, a Japanese syndrome that refers to an individual's intense fear that his or her body or its functions are offensive to other people.