The expression of TAM receptors showed diverse expressions: while LPS downregulated the expression of TYRO3 and MERTK, it significantly induced the expression of AXL (Figures 4(a) and 4(b)).
de Kouchkovsky et al., "The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity," Science, vol.
Calarese et al., "Receptor tyrosine kinases, TYRO3, AXL, and MER, demonstrate distinct patterns and complex regulation of ligand-induced activation," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
The relative gene expression of TAM receptors Tyro3 (a), Axl (b), and Mertk (c) and their ligands Gas6 (d) and Prosl (e) as well as the EMT-inducer Snail (f) is shown from control (left columns, n = 2), uninflamed (middle columns, n = 6), and inflamed (right columns, n = 6) rat colon sections.
The relative gene expression of TAM receptors TYRO3 (a), AXL (b), and MERTK (c); their receptors GAS6 (d) and PROS1 (e); and genes involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition SNAI1 (f), ZEB2 (g), MMP9 (h), CDH1 (i), VIM (j), and HIF1a (k) as well as microRNA miR-192 (l) are shown from inactive (left, n = 5), active-uninflamed (middle, n = 7), and active-inflamed (right, n = 5) colon samples of IBD patients.
The relative gene expression of the proinflammatory molecule TNF[alpha], TAM receptors TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK, and the suppressor of cytokine signalling SOCS-3 in (a) inactivated LPS-stimulated THP-1, (b) PMA-activated LPS-stimulated THP-1, and (c) TNF[alpha]-stimulated HT-29 cells.
In some experiments, cardiac tissue was used as positive control for Axl, and kidney tissue was used as positive control for Tyro3 and Mertk.
The expression of TAM receptors (Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk) in mouse [CD4.sup.+][CD25.sup.+]Tregs was determined by Western blot.
Gas6 is the ligand for the TAM family of receptors, which is composed of 3 members: Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk [8, 9].
Vermeij et al., "Therapeutic efficacy of Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk tyrosine kinase agonists in collagen-induced arthritis," Arthritis & Rheumatology, vol.