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TRPM4A gene on chromosome 19q13.33 that encodes a calcium-activated nonselective (CAN) cation channel, which mediates membrane depolarisation of cardiac myocytes, neurons from entorhinal cortex, dorsal root and vomeronasal neurons, endocrine pancreas cells, kidney epithelial cells, cochlea hair cells and others. TRPM4 participates in T-cell activation by modulating Ca2+ after T-cell activation, which is required for NFAT-dependent IL2 production; it controls insulin secretion, and it may be involved in cardiac pacing or trigger arrhythmias in the face of Ca2+ overload. It also affects T-helper (Th1 and Th2) cell motility and cytokine production by differential regulation of calcium signalling and NFATC1 localisation. It enhances cell proliferation by upregulating the beta-catenin-signalling pathway.
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