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the act or process of stimulating; the condition of being stimulated; see also promotion and enhancement.
cognitive stimulation in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of awareness and comprehension of surroundings by utilization of planned stimuli.
cutaneous stimulation in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as stimulation of the skin and underlying tissues for the purpose of decreasing undesirable signs and symptoms such as pain, muscle spasm, or inflammation.
deep brain stimulation (DBS) patient-controlled, continuous, high-frequency electrical stimulation of a specific area of the brain by means of an implanted electrode, which is controlled by a battery implanted just below the clavicle. The electrical signals block those signals from the brain causing tremors and some other related problems such as occur in Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia.
stimulation/nurturance in the omaha system, activities that promote healthy physical and emotional development.
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (transcutaneous neural stimulation) see transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.


transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
1. use of a battery-powered device to relieve acute and chronic pain. Electrodes attached to the skin transmit electrical impulses, which produce a mild tingling, tapping, or massaging sensation. Reasons postulated for the effectiveness of this method include interruption of pain impulses from the periphery to the central nervous system, increased production of endorphins, and improved blood supply to the affected part. Increased circulation encourages healing and helps reduce muscle spasm. A second generation TENS unit called The Pain Suppressor is also available; it produces an electrical current but water is used as a conducting substance, it is not attached to the skin, and the patient does not perceive the electrode current. Treatments are administered several times per day. TENS is an alternative to drugs for the management of pain and can be used in a variety of conditions. A patient can use it with minimal instruction and may wear it at home as well as in the hospital.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as stimulation of skin and underlying tissues with controlled, low-voltage electrical vibration via electrodes.
transcutaneous neural stimulation (TNS) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (def. 1).

Witkop syndrome

A rare autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia (OMIM:189500) involving the teeth and nails. Most affected individuals have normal hair, sweat glands and ability to tolerate heat, with variable defects in permanent and primary teeth.
Molecular pathology
Defects of MSX1, which encodes a homeobox protein involved in epithelial-mesenchymal signalling that has roles in limb-pattern formation and craniofacial development, cause Witkop syndrome.


transcutaneous neural stimulation.
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