TNM classification


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TNM classification

Oncology An international system for staging malignancy which measures 3 major parameters of a cancer: T–size or extent of the primary tumor, as determined by clinical exam, endoscopy, laparoscopy, biopsy or resective procedures, categorized as being 1-4 and a-d depending upon site, size, and spread; N–number of involved lymph nodes, categorized as X–unknown status, 0–none identified, 1–one to several, 2–a whole bunch of positive LNs; M-X, unknown presence or absence of metastases. See Staging.
TNM classification for staging malignancy
T Tumor
Tis    Carcinoma in situ
Ta  Non-invasive
Tx   Cannot be evaluated for nonspecified reasons
T0  Localized tumor
T1  Lesion extends to muscle–bladder, colon, breast
      T1a < 0.5 cm in greatest dimension
  T1b < 1.0 cm in greatest dimension
  T1c < 2.0 cm in greatest dimension
T2  Invasion into muscle
T3  Persistent induration of organ after resection
   T3a Invasion to deep muscle
   T3b Invasion through the organ
T4  Tumor invasion or fixation
   T4a Adjacent organ invasion
   T4b Fixation to bladder or colonic wall; in breast, edema
N Nodes
N0  No lymph node metastasis
N1  One regional lymph node metastasis
N2  Multiple, mobile regional lymph node metastases
N3  Fixed regional lymph node metastases
N4  Beyond regional lymph node involvement
NX  Lymph nodes, not evaluable
M Metastasis
M0 No evidence of metastases
M1  Distant metastases are present
MX Distant metastases not evaluable  

TNM classification

A method of classifying malignant tumors with respect to primary tumor, involvement of regional lymph nodes, and presence or absence of metastases.
See also: classification
References in periodicals archive ?
The IASLC lung cancer staging Project: A proposals fort a new international lymph node map in the forthcoming (Seventh) edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer.
The IASLC lung cancer staging Project: Proposals fort he revision of the M descriptors in the forthcoming (Seventh) edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer.
According to the AJCC, whose sponsoring member organizations include the American Cancer Society and the Centers for Disease Control, physicians are required to use the new TNM classification for all cancer diagnoses made as of January 1, 2003.
The process for continuous improvement of the TNM classification.
Pericolonic tumor deposits in patients with T3N+MO colon adenocarcinomas: markers of reduced disease free survival and intra-abdominal metastases and their implications for TNM classification.
12,13,22) Interestingly, the TNM classification proposed by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society for AET allows distinguishing minimal ([less than or equal to] 3 mm) from deep mesoappendiceal invasion.
A TNM classification and grading scheme has been proposed in 2007 by the European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society.
This analysis forms the basis for proposed changes to TNM classification for colorectal cancer for the 7th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, which is currently scheduled to be published in late summer of 2009, and the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) agreed in 2008 to these proposed changes to T4a and T4b.
A similar body of evidence is developing for these high-risk tumors of the eyelid and is worthy of collecting data field modifier findings and inclusion within the TNM classification analysis.
The ninth edition of this medical student's guide to head and neck surgery has been expanded to include new information on cysts and tumors of the jaw, TNM classifications in otolaryngology and malignant melanoma.
An anatomical reference is provided in the appendix, along with the current TNM classifications for head and neck carcinomas.