Functional analysis of a new polymorphism in the human TNF alpha
The present analysis [8, 9] focused on three cytokines: interleukin 1 beta (IL-1b), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha
); two chemokines: chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CxC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8); and the long pentatraxin, pentraxin 3 (PTX3) .
Kollias, "Immune and inflammatory responses in TNF alphadeficient mice: a critical requirement for TNF alpha
in the formation of primary B cell follicles, follicular dendritic cell networks and germinal centers, and in the maturation of the humoral immune response," The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.
Ferrell et al., "Message and protein-level elevation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha
) and TNF alpha-modulating cytokines in spinal cords of the G93A-SOD1 mouse model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis," Neurobiology of Disease, vol.
Cytokine (TNF alpha
, LT alpha and IL-10) polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel diseases and normal controls: differential effects on production and allele frequencies.
In chronic liver cell damage in patients with chronic hepatitis, TNF alpha
is secreted by macrophages, inflammatory cells and damaged hepatocytes in the liver and plays a role in the apoptosis of hepatocytes.
Elevated TNF alpha
production in whole blood in patients with severe COPD: the potential link to disease severity.
(20.) Wilson AG, di Giovine FS, Blakemore AI, Duff GW Single base polymorphism in the human tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha
) gene detectable by NcoI restriction of PCR product.
Synthesis of TNF alpha
and TGF beta mRNA in the different micro-environments within atheromatous plaques.
Influence of TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms on TNF alpha
production and disease.
High expression of TNF alpha
is associated with -308 and -238 TNF alpha
polymorphisms in knee osteoarthritis, Clin Exp Med 2014; 14: 61-67, doi: 10.1007/s10238-012-0216-3.
antagonist-induced lupus-like syndrome: report and review of the literature with implications for treatment with alternative TNF alpha