sound was the most common signs of TMDs###Age category (Years)###Frequency###Percent
The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and TMJ
osseous changes between men and women and between rural and urban residence was compared using the Chi-squared test.
For the evaluation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ
) the following criteria were analyzed: symptoms (when the patient reported occurrence of cracking, pain, difficulty opening or closing the jaw, once or more per week) and signs (occurrence of cracking, tenderness or reduced mobility of the jaw).
It can also be seen that the 5 patients who presented TMJ
lesion presented pain (Table 6).
of symptomatic patients with signs of TMJ
= 127 Prevalence = 25.4% Table 2.
To evaluate TMJ
OA pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies an animal model is essential.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT are the gold standard of diagnostic properties for visualization of disc displacement (DD), osteoarthritis (OA) changes in the shape of the articular eminence, and subchondral tissues of TMJ
(19,20), and in differential diagnosis of orofacial pain related to otorhinolaryngology (22,23).
CBCT is the imaging technique of choice for evaluating the osseous components of the TMJ
. It provides essential information to help in the diagnosis of a variety of TMJ
alterations, including osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, trauma and development disorders (Barghan et al., 2012).
studies have been carried out for a long time in the dentistry and medicine fields.
Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) application to masseter or temporal muscle as a treatment option in TMJ
disorders has been reported to reduce pain and dysfunction and help increase mouth-opening range (6, 7).
Surgical treatment depends on the patient's age and contemplates TMJ
reconstruction in conjunction with orthognathic surgery, usually necessary following completion of growth to maximize the functional and esthetic results .
One of the most important examples of stock TMJ
prostheses is the metal-on-metal (Cr-Co) Christensen implant, whose behaviour has been analyzed not only from medical  but also from engineering view, as for instance carrying out numerical modelling using finite element analysis .