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A gene on chromosome 19q13.1 that encodes a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family of cytokines. These multifunctional peptides up- and downregulate proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, death and other functions in many cell types. Active TGFB1 is either homodimeric or heterodimeric with other TGFB family members.

Molecular pathology
TGFB1 mutations cause Camurati-Engelmann disease; TGFB1 is often upregulated in tumour cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
Teniendo en cuenta que las BMPs hacen parte de la superfamilia TGFB y que son ahora reconocidas como factores de crecimiento multifuncionales que participan en una gran variedad de funciones biologicas esenciales para la gastrulacion, organogenesis, crecimiento embrionario y postnatal, se ha determinado que las vias de senalizacion mediadas por estas, estan involucradas en el desarrollo y formacion de una serie de elementos craneofaciales que incluyen la cresta neural craneana, el primordio facial, los dientes, los labios y el paladar.
P53 is a central hub in the cellular growth pathway and cooperates with other genes and transcription factors, including Myc, PTEN, NF-kappaB, FG, and TGFB.
TGFB plays a positive role as a tumor suppressor by promoting apoptosis at early stages of the cancer process, facilitated by the presence of WT P53 but not with the presence of mutant P53 that inhibits the TGFB tumor suppressor.
TGFB signaling in tumor suppression in cancer progression.
Relative amounts of 16 of 25 mRNAs (IL1B, IL10, IL15, IL18, TGFB, COX2, ICE, MMP9, HSP70, MYC, CYP2D6, STAT3, p53, BCL2, ENOS, and BAX) were markedly decreased in whole blood from one or both donors stored in EDTA tubes over the time period studied.
The research team found that the cells exposed to TGFB produced twice as many of the genes that act as a "blueprint" for the major connective tissue proteins.
21,22) Other novel functions of mutant P53 GOF are shown through the activation of specific target genes EGFR/1, RAS, Myc, and interference with the TGFB growth arrest control pathway, downregulation of the E-cadherin cell-cell adhesion molecules to enhance motility, and tumor cell migration and invasion.
Use of representational difference analysis to study the effect of TGFB on the expression profile of a pancreatic cancer cell line.
Mutant P53 may activate a network of specific transcription factors and other target genes such as E2F1, GOF, TGFB RAS, C-Myc, NF-kB, 1D4, and E-cadherin that all contribute to accelerate tumor progression, angiogenesis, mobility, extraversion, and invasion.