CoV, Coronavirus; PDCoV, porcine deltacoronavirus; PEAV, porcine enteric alphacoronavirus; PEDV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; PHEV, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus; PRCV, porcine respiratory Coronavirus; SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome; TGEV
, transmissible gastroenteritis virus.
causes a swine disease that affects young pigs and can lead to mortality (Laude et al.
Characterization was based on sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of spike genes of TGEV and PEDV isolates.
Network analysis of complete genome sequences of similar CoVs underline the chimeric nature of the genome between TGEV and PEDV genome sequences (online Technical Appendix Figure, panel A, http://wwwnc.
The spread of PRCV, which conserved most of the antigenic sites and causes cross-protection against TGEV
(3), led to the gradual disappearance of TGEV
PRCV has a 224-aa deletion at positions 21-244 in the N terminal region, which is needed for the enteric tropism of TGEV
and comprises antigenic sites C and B (13-15), of S1 compared with TGEV
Of the 89 PDCoV-positive samples, 20 samples (22% [11 fecal, 6 intestinal homogenate, 2 fecal swab, and 1 feed]) were negative for TGEV
, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), rotavirus A (RVA), rotavirus B (RVB), and rotavirus C (RVC); 69 (78%) PDCoV-positive samples were positive for PEDV, RVA, RVB, or RVC.
gt;96% aa identity in the key replicase 1ab domains), TGEV
, FCoV, and CCoV should not be considered separate viruses.
Relative to pathogenesis, 5 informative amino acid sites were found in the membrane protein at positions 108, 120, 138, 163, and 199 (based on reference sequence for TGEV
The virus-serum mixtures were then added to 96-well microtiter plates (Costar) containing overnight confluent monolayers of Vero V76 cells or PT-K75 cells, for the SARS or TGEV
CPE-blocking assay, respectively.
Immunization with vaccines made from other members of the feline coronavirus group, TGEV
or canine coronavirus, also sensitizes cats to early death syndrome (39).
No specific neutralization was observed when polyvalent or monoclonal antibodies that neutralized TGEV
or the human coronaviruses OC43 or 229E were used in a standard neutralization assay.