Two transferrin receptors, TfR1 and TfR2
, sense the plasma iron that convey the information to the BMP receptor complex via the additional proteins HFE and haemojuvelin (HJV).2,7,16-18 BMP6 activates the intracellular S-mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) pathway, which in turn up-regulates the HAMP promoter to synthesise hepcidin.
Iron is an important and essential part of numerous cellular metabolic activities and its homeostasis is regulated by a large set of cytokines (IL-1[beta] TNF-[alpha], IFN-[gamma], and IL-6, etc.) and iron-regulatory genes (ferroportin 1 (FPN-1), hemojuvelin (Hjv), hereditary hemochromatosis gene (HFE), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), transferrin (Tf), Tf receptors 1 and 2 (TfR1, TfR2
), natural resistance-associated macrophage protein-1 (Nramp-l), ceruloplasmin, and hephaestin (Heph)) while liver mainly manages body iron by making vivid changes in the expression of such genes (Camaschella, 2005; Ganz, 2006).
Hepatocyte-targeted HFE and TFR2
control hepcidin expression in mice.
(17) found a decrease in hepcidin and TfR2
expression in TM and Tl rat models and an increase in TfRl expression.
BMPs bind to the BMP type II receptor and the BMP coreceptor hemojuvelin (HJV), which interact with the HFE/transferrin receptor-2 (TfR2
This disease is caused by mutations in transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2
) gene  that codes for two main isoforms, namely, Tfr2
alpha (Tfr2[alpha]) and Tfr2
beta (Tfr2[beta]), that show moderate homology to the type 1 transferrin receptor (Tfr1) .
E2-treated SKOV-3 showed slightly reduced intracellular labile iron content, reduced expression of hepcidin and significantly increased expression of TFR1 but not TFR2
; FPN expression was overall similar to that of controls.
Results: The mRNA expression of 20 genes represented by 59 different cDNA clones significantly correlated to the [log.sub.10] [IC.sub.50] values for the artemisinins, including genes encoding transferrin (TF), transferrin receptors 1 and 2 (TFRC, TFR2
), cerulopasmin (CP), lactoferrin (LTF) and others.
In particular, TACC1 has been shown to bind the LSM7 and SmG proteins involved in telomere formation, while the TFR2
protein, a component of the telomeric complex shelterin, has been shown to form a complex with Aurora-C [42, 43].
Cells absorb most of iron through the cooperation of transferrin (Tf) and its receptors 1 and 2 (TfR and TfR2
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact of iron homeostasis genes [divalent metal transporter 1 (SLC11A2), transferrin (TF), transferrin receptors (TFR2
and TFRC), and ferroportin (SLC40A1)] on Cd accumulation.