Compared to SAT, the levels of PGC-1[alpha], UCP-1, CITED1, and TFAM
, which play major roles in mitochondrial activity and energy expenditure in brown adipocytes, increased significantly (Figures 3(a), 3(b), and 3(c)).
PGC-1[alpha], UCP1, TFAM
, and HO-1 levels were increased in adipose tissue of mice treated with EET-A, thus signifying a role of EETs in thermogenesis and browning of adipose tissue, which is masterly regulated via PGC-1[alpha] activation [52, 53, 56].
Real-Time PCR primers for GAPDH, beta2-microglobulin, cytochrome b, PGC-1[alpha], NRF1, and TFAM
, IL-6, TNF-[alpha], SOD2, SOD1, NQO-1, CAT, GPX-1, HO-1, and TNF-[alpha] were synthesized by AuGCT Biotechnology (Beijing, China).
A proper working maintenance of both mitochondrial quantity and quality is strictly related to the conservation of an adequate concentration of several proteins, such as PGC-1[alpha], TFAM
, OPA1, Drp1, Mfn1, Mfn2, mitochondrial fission (Fis) 1 protein, PINK1, Parkin, VDAC1, Bnip3, and Nix, which are involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and mitophagy process.
In terms of mitochondrial dysfunction, [H.sub.2][O.sub.2]-treated human skin fibroblasts and intrinsically MA hairless mice exhibited low levels of PGC-1[alpha] and its downstream genes such as ERRa, NRF-1, and Tfam
. Reduced expression of PGC-1[alpha], which is responsible for mitochondrial function and biogenesis, was recovered by KPE treatment (Figure 7).
Mitochondrial gene transcription is initiated by the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT) , with the aid of mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 (TFB1/2) and Tfam
announced the line up of the next edition of Taipei Biennial (photo by TFAM
demonstrated that the lack of Smad3 signaling resulted in decreased NRF and Tfam
aPi, A special event for TFAM
' re-opening (Screen capture from TFAM
It has been demonstrated that during progression of cardiac remodeling, there is significant downregulation of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, such as PGC-1[alpha] and PGC-1[beta], p38-MAPK, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM
Taipei Fine Arts Museum (TFAM
) will transform into a contemporary arts park in a project that will see the art center expanded to include spaces currently used for the "Pavilion of Aroma of Flowers" and "Expo Hall," reported CNA.
Amplification for genes of NRF-1, NRF-2, ERR-[alpha], and TFAM
was carried out with the initial incubation at 94[degrees]C for 30 s, followed by 40 cycles of the amplification step (94[degrees]C for 30 s, 60[degrees]C for 60 s, and 72[degrees]C for 1 min).