A study conducted in Portugal showed that hemozoin activates transcription of several key immune genes like REL2-F transcription factor  that regulates TEP1, APL1, LRRD7, and FBN9 anti-Plasmodium immune factors .
The Toll and Imd pathways target the ookinete stage of the parasite and promote activation of the mosquito TEP1 complement-like system .
Others Senescence-associated protein Lipoprotein Lipoprotein Low-density lipoprotein receptor- related protein Apolipoprotein D isoform 2 Putative apolipoprotein D Dermatopontin 2 Cysteine-rich venom protein Venom allergen Leucine rich protein Pg1 protein Short-chain collagen C4-like Similar To DUF221 domain protein Microvillar-like protein 5 Tep1
Viral A-type inclusion protein Yip1 domain-containing protein Functional category Species and accession number 1.
Mammalian vaults, therefore, are composed of MVP, telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1
), VPARP and vRNA.
The activation of Rel2 turns on the effectors TEP1
, APL1 and FBN9 that kill malaria-causing parasites in the mosquito's gut.
The studied genes included telomerase (TERT), telomerase-associated protein (TEP1
), telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1), telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) and protection of telomeres 1 (POT1).
This gene, called TEP1
, encodes a protein which was known to bind to and promote the killing of Plasmodium berghei malaria parasites in the mosquito's midgut, and the scientists discovered that their strain of resistant mosquitoes had a form, or allele, of TEP1
, that was different from those found in non-resistant (or susceptible) strains.
Recent work has led to the cloning of the genes encoding the various components of the human telomerase complex, including the telomerase RNA component (TERC; alternative symbol, hTR) (2), telomerase protein component 1 (TEP1
; alternative symbol, TP1) (10), and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT; alternative symbols, TC51 or EST2) (11).
The two proteins later activate a third protein in the mosquito's blood called TEP1
, which seeks out the parasitic invader, binds to its surface, and orchestrates its destruction by punching holes in its cell membrane.