The only significant difference among the groups was the lower average age of those in the PsT group, which, in fact, would imply the likelihood of a greater presence of the TABP in this group previous to the treatment (Dielman, Butchart, & Moss, 1990), and so lend greater emphasis to the results obtained.
The results after the year of treatment indicate, in the first place, that the PsT is effective in modifying some components of the TABP, as the application of the program resulted in a reduction of Pressured Drive (Factor 1 of the FTAS) and Speed-Impatience (Factor 3 of the SI) only in the PsT group, whereas in the HET and in the SMT groups, there was no reduction of these or other TABP components.
A Multiple Regression analysis was performed to determine the extent to which the predictors TABP, LOC, athletic identity, and years of participation in track and field are related to the criterion, amount of superstitious behavior practiced by student-athletes.
A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was calculated to determine if there is a difference between athletes competing at the Division I and Division III levels of competition on the dependent measures of amount of superstitious behavior practiced, TABP, LOC, and athletic identity.
This study employed one of the most frequently used self-report measures of the TABP: the 21-item global Type A-B scale from the Jenkins Activity Survey (Form C).
The other TABP instrument employed in the current study, the Vickers Scale, was originally developed by Sales in 1969.
Since Type A's attribute both success and failure to internal factors (Brunson, 1982; Brunson & Matthews, 1981; Rhodewalt, 1984), high SOP should have scored higher if SOP and TABP are equivalent constructs.
Relationship of TABP, Estimate of Self-Competence, and stress to authoritarianism and ambiguity.
The majority of research examining TABP in parents and their children has found a direct influence of TABP in parents on the expression of Type A behaviors in their children (see Forgays & Forgays, 1991 for a detailed review).
However, even when parent child TABP comparisons are performed with identical measures, specific parent-child patterns by gender are not consistently identified.
It would, thus, not be wrong to assume that parent-child interactions may play an influential role even in the development of TABP
. Various studies have been carried out to investigate this possible relationship (Bracke, 1986; Essan & Coates, 1988; Fukunishi & Fujito, 1992; McCraine & Simpson, 1986; Yamasaki, 1994).
In order to estimate the individuals' Type A behavior pattern (TABP
), the global measure devised by Bortner (1969) was used.