Query 1: For their response to one of the query regarding the use of independent sample t-test
to assess association between average usage of mobile medical application and academic performance.
It is used in post hoc comparisons and is not really a t-test
. It is the equivalent of multiple individual t-tests
between all pairs of groups in the comparison It is one of the lesset-used post hoc comparisons because there is no adjustment to the observed significance level for multiple comparisons In other words, it is less rigorous than some of the more commonly used post hoc comparisons (e.g., the Scheffe test).
There is highly significant difference between pre- and post-test scores with paired t-test
value 7.984 and P < 0.0001.
There are multiple types of t-tests
in SPSS software but the researchers used independent t-test
in this research because they want to compare two different groups (male and female) to know their motivation level.
Independent sample t-test
was performed to see the difference in the learning of mathematical concepts of students belongs to control and experimental group before treatment.
The numerical data, gathered through applying pre-test, post-test and retention-test was analyzed by applying t-test
and ANOVA at 0.05 levels.
Table 1 covers Dependent t-test
results done for comparing pretest-posttest total scores of State-Trait Anxiety Scale for walking activity.
The mean heart rate in the jet group increased significantly from 129 beats/min to 136 beats/min in patients [greater than or equal to] 2 years old (p < 0.001, paired t-test
) (Figure 1(a)), but no meaningful change was seen in patients < 2 years old (mean heart rate, from 141 beats/min to 145 beats/min) (Figure 2(a)).
Past studies have utilized the independent samples t-test
or Mann-Whitney U test for comparing two separate groups based on their means.
Shapiro-Wilk test was also needed to be used because the samples were less than 50 (<50) with a normal distribution of data (P > 0.05) at the significance level of 95%; therefore, paired t-test
had to be conducted.
Using the total intravesical onabotulinum toxin A patient cohort, a paired t-test
(mean NBSS domain score at baseline compared to mean NBSS domain score follow-up), standardized effect size (SES), and standardized response mean (SRM) was calculated.(7) A statistically significant change in the NBSS domain score, or a moderate (>0.5) SES or SRM was defined a priori as significant evidence of responsiveness.(7) The second method was an anchor based approach that uses the global assessment of change score to define a clinically relevant change.